MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN AN ORGANISATION (A STUDY OF TOWER ALUMINIUM COMPANY)
Motivation constitutes a central element when going through the process of human learning. If the organization does not possess the ability to motivate its employees, the knowledge within the organization is not practically used to a maximum. Therefore, it becomes the aim of every successful learning organization to find the factors that enable it to motivate its employees to continuous learning and to take advantage of this knowledge to ensure its living.
This project work examined the Motivation of employees in an organization with special reference to Tower Aluminium Company.
A survey method with the use of structured questionnaire was employed for data gathering in the research. A sample of One hundred staff were sampled from the population of Tower Aluminium. The selection of the sample was based on a simple random sampling technique.
For the purpose of the investigation, two hypotheses were formulated and tested with the use of Chi-Square analysis.
Data gathered were presented in tables and the results of the hypothesis revealed that; There is significant relationship between motivational factors and work productivity for experienced staff of Tower Aluminium Company Limited. Also, Monetary incentives and rewards exert a stronger influence on staff than any form of motivational incentive.
Recommendations were proffered to Tower Aluminium Company and other companies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.9 Historical Background of Tower Aluminium Nigeria Plc.
1.10 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Meaning of Motivation
2.2 Theories of Motivation
2.3 Need Satisfaction and Non-Satisfaction
2.4 Job Satisfaction
2.5 Pre-Requisites to Link Performance and Reward
2.6 Effect of Motivation on the Productivity of the Organization as well as that of the Employee
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Sources of Data Collection
3.3 Population of the Study Area
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.5 Restatement of Hypotheses
3.6 Reliability of Data Collected
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTAION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Analysis of Personal Characteristics of the Respondent
4.2 Analysis of Response of Respondents to the Problem Areas.
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses and Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Although there is a general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance. There have been a number of attempts to present models of motivation which list a specific number of motivating needs, with the implication that these lists are all-inclusive and represent the total picture of needs. Unfortunately, each of these models has weaknesses and gaps, and we are still without a general theory of motivation.
All organisations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high levels of performance through people. Consequently, the subject of adequate motivation of workers as derived from the so many attempts made by management practitioners is to look for the best way to manage so as to accomplish an objective or mission with the least inputs of materials and human resources available.
A lot of theoretical concepts, principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges. In general management authors have tended to view motivation as a key component of the managerial function of leading or directing.
In any serious and competitive society workers are one of the tools for an economic progress. Their welfare is taken into serious consideration because without a dedicated workforce an organization crumbles. Nigerian’s reward system is probably the poorest in the entire globe. Workers are used and abused harassed, maltreated, offended and discarded without any appreciation for their contribution to their organization and to the society at large.
It is therefore apparent that the issue of adequate motivation of worker has relevance in managerial function and activities that are aimed at directing the productive effort of the workforce toward achieving organisational objectives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The current state of affairs in the nation in general corresponds to the workforce. Motivation makes it necessary to temper this optimism with caution. “The workers are on strike again. ”Over what?“ They are asking for another pay rise after the one granted just few months ago.” “What more do they want?” These statements and comments and many similar ones are reported frequently in the dailies and are commented upon by watchers of development in various industry and service organisation. The questions are often asked as to what workers in general and particular want from their employers. Can there be an end to the clamour for increases in wages? Why do workers work and what induces them to give their best?
Motivating employees has been a challenge to organizations in Nigeria. Most companies tend to maximize profit with little concern to the welfare of the staff. This affects employees moral and makes them put less efforts to the productivity of the oganisation. This research work tends to investigate these problems and proffer better ways of motivating employees in an organization.
1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of this research work is to examine the ways employees can he motivated in an organisation.The objectives include;
• To identify the various reward systems in Tower Aluminium Nigeria Limited with a view to establishing their effect on the motivation of staff.
• To find out whether there is any correlation between rewards and performance of the employees.
• To proffer useful suggestions towards improving the rewards system in the organization so as to enhance the productivity of its work force and by extension the industry and the economy as a whole.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research questions are meant to generate possible answers to different aspects of the research problem and they should be clearly stated such that they act as guides in identification, collection and analysis of relevant data. In order to achieve the purpose of this research, the study will attempt to provide answers to the following research questions in order to arrive at a logical conclusion
• Ø Is there any relationship between motivational factors and higher productivity for experienced staff of Tower Aluminium Company Limited?
• Ø Is there any relationship between motivational factors and attitude to work of less experienced staff of Tower Aluminium Company Limited?
• Ø Is there any relationship between motivational factors and approach to work of old members of staff in the entire Tower Aluminium Company Limited?
• Ø Is there any relationship between motivational factors and attitude to work of young members of staff in Tower Aluminium Company Limited?
• Ø How does the esteem accorded to a position affect the job
• Ø How do the responsibilities attached to job position influence job performance?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
I believe that work can be meaningful and satisfying to a given job incumbent only when it elicits and stimulates his inner motivation. These views raise some research questions, which form the basis of the hypotheses for this study. To put this in proper perspective, the following hypotheses were formulated for testing.
HO: There is no significant relationship between motivational factors and work productivity for experienced staff of Tower Aluminium Company Limited.
H1: There is significant relationship between motivational factors and work productivity for experienced staff of Tower Aluminium Company Limited.
HO: Monetary incentives and rewards do not exert a stronger influence on staff than any form of motivational incentive.
H1: Monetary incentives and rewards exert a stronger influence on staff than any form of motivational incentive.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology deals with the procedure used by the researcher to conduct the study. It contains the different activities performed and methods employed by the researcher in the study. For the purpose of collecting necessary data for this research work, primary and secondary data collection method will be used. The primary data collection method will be through the following:
1. Structured questionnaire
2. Personal unstructured interview
The secondary data will be collected from reports and documents from the company. Also, reports outside the company and from library and desk research literatures will be used.
In this study, descriptive method will be used to analyze data and also in resting hypothesis, chi-square (X2) will be employed. Findings from this research study will be discussed in the light of the research problem hypothesis, purpose research questions, literatures of the research and other relevant issues conclusions will be drawn and recommendations and suggestions will also be made.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Studies of the nature are becoming increasing important because it will promote the needed awareness that better salaries or working condition alone do act as factors that could motivate staff toward efficient performance in the organization.
The findings of this study will have the theoretical as well as practical importance. There have been various notions on the element that motivate employee towards performance on the job. This study will check the validity of some of these claims and hence be a contribution to the development of management in our complex organization.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study assesses the motivational strategies for enhancing workers job performance. This study was limited to a selected Company: Tower Aluminium Company Limited.
In the course of conducting this research work it is expected that the following will constitute impediments to the effective conduct of the study
a) Time constraint within which the study must be completed.
b) Financial constraint
c) Inaccessible and inadequate data
Nevertheless, we believe the above limitations will in no way affect the reliability and validity of the research study.
1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TOWER ALUMINIUM NIGERIA PLC.
Tower Aluminium Nigeria Pl. Began its operation in Nigeria in 1959 and has today grow into a leading Aluminium manufacturing industry, which is second to none. The company was incorporated as Tower Aluminium Nigeria Limited and later to a public limited company in 1991 due to being privatized, it was quoted on the Nigeria stock exchange and has division and subsidiaries in more than ten states of the federation among which are Tower extrusion Aluminiums industries Pl. In Imo state, and Nigeria Association Battery manufacturing company in Ikeja Lagos state to mention a few. The company registered office is located at Oba Akran Avenue, Ikeja Lagos state.
Tower Group, a Pioneering Leader of Aluminium products in West Africa, is a house hold name in Nigeria. Tower products are distinguished for high-class quality and excellence in customer service and value to the society.
Tower is the single largest vertically integrated group in the aluminium field in Nigeria, with five major businesses: Rolling, Roofing, Kitchenware, Extrusion and Flexible Packaging.
The Tower Group commenced with Aluminium Kitchenware in 1959 with its flagship company Tower Aluminium (Nig.) Plc and over the years expanded its operations, investments and commitments in Nigeria . The Group’s product range encompasses Patterned & Stucco Coils, Color Coated Coils, Roofing Sheets, Cookware, Extruded Profiles & Flexible Packaging.
The five divisions of Tower Aluminium are:
• Aluminium Rolling Mills, Otta – (Plain coils, circles)
• Tower Extrusions, Lagos – (Extrusion powder coated profiles)
• Tower Holloware, Lagos – (Kitchen wares, pots, pans)
• Tower Houseware, Lagos – (Pots and pans)
• Tower Building Products, Lagos – (Roofing Sheets)
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MOTIVATION: A process that arouses, sustains and regulates human behaviour to doing a thing.
JOB PERFORMANCE: It is the acting or working in accordance to the objectives of an organization
RESPONSIBILITY: It is an obligation to performs task and to account for the outcome of the job or task (Macon, Albert, Khedour (1988).
ORGANIZATION: It is an entity that is established for the purpose of meeting expectations, either in terms of production or services, within the context of the use of available resources
BEHAVIOUR: Doing a thing of a particular kind in an attempt to satisfy desire or urge.
WORK: Use of bodily or mental powers with the purpose of doing or making something.
STRATEGY: A plan that is used to achieve something
STUDY: Giving time and attention to learning or discovering something. Also, a piece of work that someone does to find out more about something.
PROBLEM: Situation that cause difficulties
MEGA: Something that is very big and impressive
FRINGE BENEFITS: They are non- salary, rewards given to an employee e.g. vacation, welfare, promotion etc.
MOTIVATOR: Things, which includes an individual to perform excellently
PRODUCTIVITY: The contribution of factors of production to output, that is parameter which describes the economic efficiency with a firm process its inputs in terms of labour, machine and materials.