Incentive Management And Teachers’ Productivity In Secondary Schools In Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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INCENTIVE MANAGEMENT AND TEACHERS’ PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

According to the encyclopedia of education Vol. 6, p. 409, motivation is not a recent phenomena. It dates back to see early days of Greek writer who presented Hedonism as an explanation to motivation. Hedonism is the act of seeking pleasant states while avoiding unpleasant state.

Human management in school organization can be placed under two main schools. The scientific management school in the early management tradition and was developed by F. W. Taylor in his book, the principle of scientific management published in 1911. According to Taylor, there is one best way to do a job and management should discover it and apply scientific principle to the design of work procedure to maximize production.

This research work has set out to study the incentive management and teachers’ productivity in school organization and to recommend ways of improving profit profile and the need for effective motivation in the education sector.

In theory of motivation and in the context of productivity, the increased efficiency and effectiveness of teachers that leads to their productivity is through the incentive in the management. In order to inspire the teacher to achieve their maximum productivity, one must reward them through incentive and by giving them responsibility; my making it possible for them to achieve and by assisting them to grow and be recognized. Therefore, it is pertinent to note that teachers’ performance and their productivity depend on the fulfillment of both motivation and maintenance needs.

Therefore, Schermehoron (1980) motivation to work as it is used in management theory is to describe the forces with the level, direction and individual that account for the persistence of effort expanded at work. Therefore, is been found out that a highly motivated employee will always put in more effort and will bring out his/her best for the job as compared to an employee that is not adequately motivated and this affect productivity adversely.

Work brings satisfaction when it offers adequate mental challenge by offering opportunity to seek skills creativity variety and some measure of autonomy in task performance.

The degree of satisfaction and productivity will depend on the discrepancy between his expectancies for the institution or organization and what the organization actually offers him.

However, bearing this in mind it has become necessary to x-ray the meaning of productivity. The term productivity refers to the volume of goods and services produced per unit of labour impact (work hour) in school activities. To drive this point home, productivity from the management perspective simply identifies both success and failure in producing good and service in quantity, of quality and with a good use of resources. Other things being equal (which cannot be equal) productivity rises in a work situation when the quantity of output increases, and or the cost of resources utilized decreased.

Productivity is equally ensured when it is not to be achieved at a very high cost, in other words, when it was not achieved at the expense of other desired goals like good health and family relationship (Ukeje, 1992). Productivity on the job is heritable when it is perceived as being instrumental to the attainment of the individuals important job value like achieving higher status and increased earnings.

From the ongoing, Ukeje (1991) opined that administrators who focus primarily on relation in an attempt to make his men satisfied and productive in the job should therefore realize that job satisfaction alone cannot lead to productivity which is a major factor in effectiveness.

Since the teacher is a crucial component of any educational institution or system, they play significant role in the attainment of the objectives of any educational system. Thus, their utilization is pivotal to the survival of the school system as it has direct relationship with their job performance.

Finally, the researcher in this study will try to identify how effective motivation could create and impeachable impact on the much desired cost control and increased output which in turn could lead to maximization of profit. Therefore, incentives for teachers and their job productivity have been considered by the researcher from the angle teachers’ in-services training, teachers’ compensation, condition of service and teachers’ promotion as it relates to their job productivity in Abak Local Government, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

This research study sought to find out the effect of incentive management to teachers and how it can help to improve teachers’ productivity.

The ongoing situation posed a challenge to the researcher thereby moving her into seeking to find out whether incentive management have any relationship with teaches job productivity. And thus, to determine the level of the existing relationship between the testable variables.

In the school system, the teacher obviously play the greatest part in education of the child and all other factors availability of relevant instructional materials, student personal commitment to studies not with standing. Enoh (1996:129) admit that no matter how students are made to work on their own and facilities provided, their achievement is tremendously affected by the extent to which they are taught. It then follows that student’s academic achievement, high or low is related to teachers’ level of productivity.

Teachers’ productivity in school organization depends on the individuals abilities and motivation. While the abilities depend on the individuals background, skills and training, motivation is essentially a managerial responsibility (Ejiogu, 1990:34). In the school system, the variables determine teachers’ output. Considering the apparent low level of productivity among teachers in Nigeria.

The basic question and problem the researcher has in mind to undertake this study is:

  • Are the teachers not equipped with the necessary skills required for effective job performance?
  • Are the staff not sufficiently motivated to elicit the desired level of performance from the teachers?
  • Is the productivity of teachers in secondary schools especially in the study area affected by defective management of teachers’ productivity?

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The general objective of this research work is to ascertain the relationship between incentive management and teachers’ productivity.

In specific terms the researchers is intended to:

  1. To find out if there is any relationship between in-service training and teachers’ productivity.
  2. To find out if there is any relationship between teachers’ compensation and their productivity.
  3. To investigation if there is any relationship between conditions of service and teachers’ productivity.
  4. To determine if there is any relationship between promotion and teachers’ productivity.

1.4   Research Question

In order to make the design of this investigation more specific and meaningful, the following research questions were formulated.

  1. To what extend does in-service training relate to teachers’ productivity?
  2. To what extent does teachers’ compensation relate to their productivity?
  3. To what extend does condition of service relate to teachers’ productivity?
  4. How does promotion relates to teachers’ productivity?

1.5   Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant relationship between in-service training and teachers’ productivity.
  2. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ compensation and their productivity.

iii.     There is no significant relationship between teachers’ condition of service and job productivity.

  1. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ promotion and productivity.

1.6   Significance of the Study

This research study is aimed to be of a great benefit to school administrators, teachers and academic planners. It will enable educational policy makers to adopt measures that will give job satisfaction to teachers and make them highly productive.

The study will acquaint school managers with various needs of staff. The knowledge of the needs patterns of teachers will enable the principal to motivate the staff in accordance with their need pattern.

This will move teachers to positive action leading to high productivity.

Any improvement in education most starts with improvement of the quality of the teaching staff. This study will enable school administrators to adopt systematic designs for training and retraining of staff in the school system.

The study will encourage teachers to participate in conferences, seminars and workshop designed to enhance teachers’ knowledge and improvement in their teaching skills.

It will bring to the knowledge of the school managers the need to apply non-economic incentives as means of motivating staff towards effective job performance and greater output.

The study will also enables school administrators to be well informed about management strategies that foster the cooperation and commitment of staff to work.

It will bring to the knowledge of the school managers the need to apply non-economic incentives as means of motivating staff towards effective job performance and greater output.

The study will also enables school administrators to be well informed about management strategies that foster the cooperation and commitment of staff to work.

1.7   Assumptions

The study is based on the following assumption of productivity.

  1. Teachers in-service training can determines teachers’ level of productivity.
  2. Teachers productivity can be measured.
  3. Teachers productivity varies from one teacher to another.

1.8   Scope of the Study

The research study covers some of the secondary schools in Abak Area Council. It focus attention specially on the relationship between productivity of teacher and the variables of in-service training, teachers compensation, condition of services and promotion of teachers.

1.9   Limitation of the Study

This study has encountered a lot of limitation owing to the attitude of respondents to the questionnaire, limited funds, time and researcher. These have contributed to reducing/narrowing the scope of the study to a few secondary schools among the numerous that abound within Abak Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.10 Definition of Terms

Teacher: A person whose job is teaching especially in a school. He is a professional who teaches learners to acquire knowledge and skill.

Incentive: This is something that encourages or motivates a teacher to perform his/her duty effectively.

Productivity: According to Schermerhorn (1987) defined productivity as a summary measure of the quantity and quality if work performance with resources are combined and utilized to accomplish specific desirable result (Encyclopedia of professional management, 2nd ed. Vol. 2, 1995).

Performance: Musselman and Hughes (1969) defines performance as the fulfillment of an obligation by all parties to the contract.

Organization: Musselman and Hughes (1981:78) view organization as a group of two or more people working together in a pre-determined fashion to achieve a common set of goal.

Motivation: According to Robert A. Barcon (1986:73) motivation is defined as the set of processes that energies a person behaviour and direct it toward attaining some organizational goal for job enrichment.

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