Security management situations in public secondary schools in north central zone of nigeria.

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Most school environments no longer provide the security required for effective teaching and learning. Today, security issue has become a major challenge in our educational institutions. Consequently, this study set out to explore ways of improving security situations in the North Central Zone public secondary schools.

The study was a descriptive survey study, involving 1,188 respondents, made up of 176 principals and 1012 teachers from 352 public secondary schools in North Central Zone. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study, namely: Check list on available devices for improving security situation in public secondary schools and a four point scale Questionnaire on improving Security Situation in Public Secondary Schools. (QSSMPSS).

Five research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive analyses of frequencies and percentages was used to answer the six research questions while t-test comprising Mean and Standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Also to draw conclusion on whether there is a significant difference between the response of principals and teachers, ANOVA sum of square (which measure the variation around mean) was used focusing on difference between.

The result showed among others that some security devices for the improvement of security situations as well as the emergency response plans for managing security in public secondary schools were not available in most schools. The findings of the study also indicated that it is acceptable to have staff and student identity cards, staff code of conduct and conflict resolution management programmes to help the staff as well as the students know how to resolve their disputes. The respondents agreed too that there is need to have constant searches of student’s lockers and boxes to seize weapons and dangerous objects from the students.

Based on the findings and implications, it was recommended that the schools should purchase security devices such as closed circuit television, sprinkler system to control fire damage and metal dictator, build burglary doors and iron bars. It was also recommended that emergency response plans for managing security threats such as holding emergency PTA meetings, taking occasional roll calls of the students, constant maintenance of school facilities, employing trained security personnel and provision of up to date emergency response equipment should be adopted.

There should also be constant student drills onsafety and security matters, constant searching of student lockers and boxes to seize weapons and contraband materials. It was also recommended that there should be measures for managing the security of the school plant such as having crises response team for emergencies, having constant school site survey, building safety expectation into the school programme and having a model school security plan. Also, the management need to have perimeter fencing of the school environment and employ trained security personnel to keep the school secured.

Background of the Study
The management of security is paramount to the effective management of schools and it is an issue that has attracted a great deal of attention and concern from learners, educators, parents, and the public at large. Management is viewed as the coordination of all the resources of an organization, through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organizational goals (Ogunu, 2009). Management is a vital function of school administration. The school principal has to plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate staff and material resources to achieve the objectives of the school.

The Education Board with the school managers have multiplicity of functions to
perform such as arrangement of students and grouping of activities into units to make for utilization of material resources in carrying out functions. Some of the functions are planning curriculum, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment, monitoring students’ progress, protecting the students and providing security for the school facilities and stakeholders.

They must be concerned not only with the quality of instruction, but also with the maintenance of safety and security in the school. Michele, Water, Susan, and Atartins (2007) stated that the school principal works to make school experience humanized so that the students could feel connected, valued and motivated to learn and achieve the school objectives. They further said that the principal has to endeavour to improve the school environment so that the teachers could feel confident, respected and safe. This proves a well-managed school with a good social climate.

A well-managed school begins with thorough advanced planning by the head of the school and the teachers, to ensure that the teachers have adequate knowledge of their subjects and those security needs of the students and staff are guaranteed.

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