MALARIA PARASITE AND ITS EFFECT TO HUMAN HEALTH
The detection of malaria parasite in the blood which was the major aim of this project was carried out and experimented data shows the existence of three species of the parasite in the human blood cell vis:
(a) Plasmodium falciparium (b) Plasmodium Malaria
(c ) Plasmodium Vivax. More over, the last remaining spp which is Plasmodium Ovale was not observed at all in the human blood cell.
Out of 150 specimens collected, 110 were found to be positive indicating that about 75% people in our country Nigeria were living under the shadow of this infectious disease.
Finally, in our finding. It was assumed that the group of people that are more subsetible to this malaria parasite were children under the age range of 1 to 10 and the pregnant women in the adult range. This finding was made after staining the thick and thin film using the different stains vis. Leishman, Giemsa, and field stains which enhances a clear observation of the morphological appearance of the organism under the microscopic view.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE STAGES OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF MALARIA PARASITE.
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 MATERIALS USED
3.2 SAMPLE COLLECTION
3.3 METHOD OF SAMPLE ANALYSIS
3.4 PREPARATION OF BLOOD FILM
3.5 PREPARATION OF BUTTER SOLUTION TO BE USED WITH GEMSA STAIN
3.6 DIFFERENT BETWEEN THICLE AND THIN FILM
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 TABULATION OF THE RESULT OBTAINED
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Malaria parasite is regarded as one of the most serous health problems facing almost the whole world today. It was noted that this parasitic disease is caused by species of protozoa called Plasmodium Spp. Within the compass of medical environment, malaria was known to be a parasitic disease that gets into human system through the pathogenic bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. (Knudsen, 1992).
Malaria parasite was also found to be mostly infective to the children under 5-6years and pregnant women, this is because this group of people usually build antibodies which do not prevent the endemic disease of the parasite, but tolerate the victim to a point where it is not consistently lethal (WHO 1986). In the year 1880
Alphonsus lavaran first observed this parasite at it merizoit stage and was published in the B “Bullentine de Aeademic de medicine pariss”. Futher findings on this malaria parasite was carried on by Italian doctors. Which includes Golgi manson, Baslianelli etc.
This people observed the mechanism of spreading and the life cycle of the parasite. It was also estimated that 270 million new malaria infection occur worldwide along with 110million cases of illness and 2million deaths, where 25% of childrens death in Africa aere attributed to malaria parasite (WHO 1986).
Malaria parasite being a parasite which falls into protozoa called sporozoa. It means that they are spore formers, their life cycle involves and alternation of generation, one which is sexual and the other asexual method of reproduction. The sexual and asexual generation in this parasite take place in two different hosts. In a complex life cycle like this where the parasite has two host, the definite and the intermidiate host. In the definite host, the parasite carries out the sexual part of the reproduction of which female anopheles mosquito is the host which the asexual part will be carried on in the intermediate host which is in the human blood system (Franklin and wehrle 1948).
According to cheesBrough (1987) this plasmodium Spp which is the causative agent of this malaria parasite are of four varieties species that attacks man. They are (a) Plasmodium Viax which cause tartian malaria, or vivax malaria (b) Plasmodium Malaria, the cause of quatain malaria also called malaria malariae ( c) Plasmodium Oval that causes oval malaria and finally (d) Plasmodium Falciparum which is the agent of malignant tartian malaria. With skill and experience these organs and the differet disease they cause can be possibly differetiate from each other.
Among all the mosquitoes that suck blood, it is the female species that has the quality capable of sucking blood, the male mosquitoes are vegetarians which means plant feeders, they feed on the plant juice which they suck. It is the female mosquito in the genus anopheles that bites man to suck blood, and in the process inject the malaria parasite in the body system.
Infecteous mosquito contain in their salivary gland plasmodia which occur in spindle – shaped form known as sporaozonite. Once a mosquito that is parasitise by this organism feeds on the host liver (intermediate host), it inject the sporozoites, these migrate to the host liver where in the parenchymal cells they multiplies asexually. This pact of cycle is known as exo-erythrocytic schizogony, exo-erythrocytic indicates that it take place outside the red cell, “schizogony” literally meaning splitting generation. This Malaria Parasite leaves the liver cells, enter red blood cells, and begin the erythrocytic schizogony phase.
While para-erythrocytic cycle continue in the parenchymal cell of the liver. The exception being plasmodium falagraum which do not undergo paraerythrocytic schizogony cycle in the red cell the malaria parasite grows in size making use of globin in haemoglobin as its source of protein as amino acid, the residual product collects as a pigment.
Then division of the protozoan nucleus occur. At this point, the multinucleated organism inside a red cell is called schizont or segmneter. And a separate nucleus which is surrounded by its own cytoplasm is called a merozorite. The number of the nuc…
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