management and operational problems of rural water supply in nigeria (a case study of water corporation enugu)

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This research work is aimed at finding the courses of the organization and management problems of rural water supply programme in Nigeria, with a case study of Anambra State Water Corporation Awka.

To guide this study thirteen (13) research questions were formulated and tested with percentages.  Based on the findings, some major findings include that the Anambra State Water Corporation have adequate materials for implementing their works and services.

Consequently, it is found that organization and management problems of rural water supply in Nigeria, had adversely affected the functionality of the rural water supply.

Finally, it is found that the aim and objectives of rural water supply programme re not being achieved in Nigeria.

Based on the above finding, some major recommendations were made for effective implementations.

1.     The management of Water Corporation Awka should pay staff their monthly salaries/wages in order to encourage staff for effective work.

2.     Management in assessing the candidate for recruitment should consider the qualification of the qualified once in order to avoid weak staff or incompetent once.

3.     The aims of the organization will be achieved if the management participate effectively with the above paints.



1.0    Introduction                                                                         

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of the study

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Questions

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope of the study

1.7        Limitation of the study

1.8        Definition of Terms



2.0    Literature Review                                                              

2.1    The Nature of Rural Water supply in the

Rural Community

2.2        Administration of Anambra State Water Corporation (ANSWC)

2.3        Management and Organizational of (ANSWC)

2.4        Operational and Maintenance Support Facilities

2.5        Problems and Projects of (ANSWC)



3.0    Research Design and Methodology                       

3.1        Design of the Study

3.2        Area of the study

3.3    Population of the study

3.4        Sample and Sample Technique

3.5        Instrument of Data Collection

3.6        Validation of the instrument

3.7        Reliability of the Instrument

3.8        Method of Data Administration and Retrieval

3.9    Method of Data Analysis


4.1    Data Presentation, and Analysis                                     

4.2    Summary of the Result


5.0    Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion      

5.1        Summary of the Results

5.2        Conclusions

5.3        Recommendations

5.4        Suggestion for Further Research






1.1       Background of the Study

Nigeria is blessed by nature with a lot of natural resources amongst which water is one of them; World Health Organisation (WHO) confirmed that Nigeria was blessed with abundant water resources, the excess of which has been causing flood and erosion in many part of the country.  However, the distribution of these water resources was not evenly spreaded over the country, life and other agricultural activities every year irrespective of the draught that frequently occur in the Northern part of the country of course, man had been obtaining water for domestic and other purposes since man’s creation.  Water supply can therefore be said to be as old as man itself.

Inspite of the availability of resource, WHO (1976) maintained that “its supply to the majority of the population especially, the rural areas is very much inadequate”. Anambra state of Niger Edict No. 16 (1978) simply defined rural water supply as a wide category of scheme ranging from a well width buchet supplying water to a few isolated but to river pumping scheme from such a simple treatment as communal stand pipes to tap in individuals homes and provisions for livestock and vegetable gardens.

Ilo (1991), however stated that various traditional means of obtaining water has been developed by individual and communities for many centuries and that some of these systems were very much in use by various communities both rural and urban.

The United Nations Economic commission for Africa (1973) confirmed that it was only about 20% of the population of Nigeria that have access to potable water supply.  It further stated that majority of these people are those that are living in the urban and semi urban area of the country and that even the privileged places that has access to such facilities were not being served sufficiently.

Thus the need for the provision of adequate water supply and sanitation is highly appreciated.  And this had promoted the choice of the topic on the management and operational problems of rural water supply in Nigeria. A case study of water corporation Awka, with a view to recommending solutions which if accepted, would help to solve these problems and as well, facilitates to the alleviation of the sobering of the people.

Water Corporation Awka was established as a parastatal under Anambra State of Nigeria Edict No.16 of (1978).  The corporation was originally charged with the statutory responsibility of supplying drinking water to all the urban as well as the rural communities of old Anambra State.  It was formerly the water section of then East Central State Ministry of Works and Housing.  The general manage is responsible of the day to day running of the corporation, while the board of directors or the commissioner of the controlling ministry in the absence of the governing board, is responsible for policy matters only.

Umeh (1993) stated that the corporation is presently operating eleven (11) zonal offices in the state including Awka.  He stated that the corporation is principally maintained from government subventions and budget allocation for capital projects and from internally generated revenue, water tariffs, sales of metres, fees etc, for its day to day operations.

1.2       Statement Of The Problem

Awka as a growing industrial and commercial town has been without adequate supply of potable water.  This potable water supply inadequacies being experienced in the rural communities of Awka have been brought about by many factors.  Despite the huge sums of money being sum into these rural water supply, yet water is still very inadequate.

1.     It has been difficult for the society to understand the extent of the aims and objectives for setting up the water corporation.

2.     Another problem is whether the resources both human and material are adequate.

3.     The attitude of water consumers have also constituted              problems.

4.     The instability in government and constant changes in leadership.

1.3       Objectives Of The Study

The purpose of this research project on the management and operational problems of rural water supply in Nigeria.  A case study of water corporation Awka to investigate the followings.

1.     To what extent has the aims and objectives of rural water supply programme are being achieved in Nigeria with particular reference to Awka rural communities.

2.     To find out the extent of adequacy and suitability of materials and human resources for change in rural water supply programme in Awka.

3.     To ascertain the extent to which the changes in government and leadership affect the steady water supply.

4.     To find out the extent to which the management and operational problems affect the functionality of the rural water supply service in Nigeria with respect to Awka.

1.4       Research Questions

To guide this study five research questions were formulated, they include the following.

1.     What are the characteristics of rural water staff and socio-economic characteristic of rural household?

2.     To what extent are the aims and objectives of rural water supply programme being achieved in water co-operation?

3.     How adequate and suitable are the materials and human resources for change in rural water supply programme in Awka?

4.     To what extent has the management and operational problems affect the functionality of rural water supply services in Awka.

5.     To what extent does the changes government and leadership affect the management of water corporation Awka?

1.5       Significance of the Study

The issue of the benefits in effective and increased water supply in the rural areas of Awka cannot be overemphasized as it has been stated earlier.  Inadequate water supply coupled by sanitation had been the bane of rural communities in Awka.

1.     The growing industrial and commercial town of Awka has been without adequate supply of potable water since the collapse of the two boreholes at Umuokpu pumping station.

2.     It is however hoped that the research the management and operational problems of rural water corporation Awka will provide information, which if utilized, will help in finding solution to the above problems.

3.     The information gathered from this study is also expected to serve as a basic for social policy decisions which will enable the government to design specific policies that will be beneficial to the community and will improve and enhances the efficiency of water corporation Awka.

4.     It is also hoped that participation in this research project will help to burden the knowledge of the researcher, in the field of management & operation.

1.6    Scope of the Study

According to Akpakpam (2005:7), the scope of the study is limits or boundary lines cover by the research or the extent the researchers would go.  However, the scope of the study covers the management and operational problems of rural water supply in Nigeria using Water Cooperation Awka as the case study.

1.8 Definition of Terms

·        Management: Management could be defined as a “social process entailing responsibilities for an effective planning and regulations of operation of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given purpose or task such responsibilities involves (a) judgment and decision in determining plans and progress against plans and guidance integration, motivation and supervision.

·        Operation:  Operation means the way something works or come into operation or being used.

·        Cooperation: Corporation is a business organisation made up of a number of owners who have right to do business as a single legal unit.

·        Efficiency: Refers to the amount of resources used in producing a unit of output.  It is explained in terms of the relationship between inputs and outputs.


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