transportation problems in multi-campuses in higher insttution of learnng and their possible solutions (a case study of i.m.t enugu)

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The study has the aim of elaborating on some of the causes of transportation problems in multi-campuses in higher institutions of learning and their possible solution.

The method of research used to collect information for the study is secondary source, with the help of secondary source, the researcher was able to ascertain some of the causes of transportation’s problem in multi-campuses in higher institutions of learning such as bad road etc and their possible solution.

Based on these findings, useful suggestions were equally made on how to solve the problem of transportation in multi-campuses.  Some of these suggestions include proper management, re-orientation, abolition of multi-campuses system etc.



1.0              Introduction

1.1       General background to the subject matter

1.2              Problems associated with the subject matter

1.3              The problems that the study will be concerned with

1.4              The Importance of the studying the area

1.5              Definition of important terms

1.6              Reference


2.0              Literature Review

2.1       School of Thought within the subject area

2.2              The origin of the subject area

2.3              The School of Thought relevant to the problem of study

2.4              Different methods of studying the problem

2.5              Summary

2.6              Reference


3.0              Conclusion

3.1       Data presentation (Highlights of the subject)

3.2              Analysis of the Data

3.3              Recommendation

3.4              Conclusions

3.5              References


1.0              INTRODUCTION

Life expectance has never met anyone without some hitches.  This is a result of the unclear nature of the world we are in.

Transportation case, is not an exception, in schools or in the commercial sector, transportation has been a major stumbling block to economic growth.

In our higher institution, especially the multi-campuses, this has gained lots of havoc to the human resource development.  This becomes more complex when it has been confirmed that almost nothing is done to alleviate the problem by the authority that be.

Education is one of the greatest assets for any nation.  It is a long run profitable venture for any nation.  Transport to say is the knitting needle with which every other national affair is being brought together and education is not an exception.  Due to its prime importance to bringing people in different location together, its negative effect has deterred the advancement of education in higher institutions especially the multi-campus ones.  But it, students can go to school and to their home especially for non residential institution or movement from one of the campus to the other.

This project will go into in-depth investigation to find out the causes of this transportation problem in our campuses and possible way out of the problem(s).  A case study is the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Enugu State.

At the end of the study, revelations shall be made on how to improve the transportation problem(s) of the multi-campus institution in our nation.



The movement of resources, be it human or material is a location of plenty to that of absent or vice versa has unique mode.

The modes of transportation among other includes:

(i)         Land transportation

(ii)        Water transportation

(iii)       Air transportation


This form of transport has been as old as man.  People, goods and services are conveyed from one place to another by land.  This started with long distance transport on foot followed by the use of animals as Horse and Donkeys for carrying loads.  Over the years, as man ingenuity to form the earth to his taste increases, he continues to develop easy and faster modes of land transportation.  Amongst these are road transportation and rail transportation.


Is the means of carrying goods and services, people from one location to another by water.  This is achieved by means of liners, canoes, ships, engine boat etc.  It could be within a country (nation) or between two or more countries (international).

In international water transportation, ocean liners, or streamers and tramp liner are used, and it takes place on high seas, oceans and big risers.  National is within the water mass of the country; here we have lances, canoes, and engine boats as the transportation means.

Transportation by water is very good and efficient in making long distant Journey.  It is most convenient in carrying bulky goods. The weight of goods carried by this means far outweighs any other form of transportation.


This started with the invention of airplane and helicopter and first flown by the WRIGHT BROTHERS.  This form is in no doubt the height of means ingenuity to making transportation much more effective, efficient and faster.  It is fastest, align much more effective, efficient and fastest.  It is fastest, safer and can convey both people, goods and mail at ease.  Bulky goods are also flown into air without a do.  It makes the farthest distance ever.  International travels are made in hours, and minutes.  Presently, homage is being paid to other plants like mars, Jupiter etc by an advanced country from aeroplane called space craft.


Life is never a mary-go round affair.  At one in or the other, unwanted events stand on the way of progress.  Transportation also face the same fate.  Amongst the problems of transportation are:

(a)        Lack of Good Road:

This as a result, great extent militate road transportation case.  Our roads are too bad for the vehicle that plays in them.  During the season, most of them are so worst that no vehicle can pass, they become barriers in certain places if any driver insist on crossing over, his vehicle with either sink of fail into it and he would have himself to blame.

(b)        Weather:

Weather according to Oxford Advanced Learners of current English defines weather as the climates condition of a place over a period of time.  Weather in air travel, aeroplane seldom makes flight when the weather condition is poor.  If visibility is poor, flight could be suspended or if there is impending snow fall or hail stone, flight could also be suspended.  Likewise countries that experience snowfall avoid transportation within the period of fall till it dries off.

Bad weather condition such as water, trade, wind etc to affect water transportation in the negative way during such period, ocean liner etc take cover at any nearby shore.

(c)        Lack of Good Network Roads:

The absence of good road network, militates the free flow of goods, people and services.  When two or more places are not properly linked locating an area from another became a tasks which may be foregone unless on strong desire/needs.  This could be as a result of natural barriers like mountain, hills, valley or negligence by the authorities concerned.

This is the sole reason why the government of any nation gives a ministry takes care of this problem, ensuring within their capability that the major area are linked up and that there is easy and free flow of traffic in Nigeria the incumbency lies on the Ministry of Works and Housing.


(a)        Management:

By management we mean poor or improper managing, controlling and co-ordinations of the available resources.  With which the school is being run.  These resources could be human, such as the staff and student or materials like the school house, machine building etc.  In the organization chart of the institution management, we have the personalities at the top, these are managers.  They include Vice Chancellor, Deputy Vice Chancellor, the Registrar, Deans of Faculty, Heads of Department etc.  Misdirection of the duties has really shown in many other sections of the institution management and has not only caused the problem of transportation of a lot have led to many hydra-headed problem to the institution as a whole.

This management can be seen in the following areas:

(i)         Laissez Faire Attitude of the Management over the Proper Maintenance of the School Vehicles:

The Enugu Campus (UNEC) of the institution has a work department which is more or less a camouflage or museum in the sense that the place is infested of spoilt vans littered here and there none is functional or more to put anyone functional being made.  The place has turned out to be a dumping ground for damaged van rather than vehicle maintenance unit.  Even though the school is child of the nation and should be given maximum attention, setting the standard for other schools to follow.  Transportation problem still torment the school.

Last time in June 2000, when the student of the school was assassinated by unknown men in this campus, the students wanted to take him to the UNTH to their dismay, this only Mercedes being car meant for emergency van, was said to have no flue in this student got furious by this and since they couldn’t got any vehicle to rush him to the hospital because it was at night 11.00am, this made them to act otherwise and the car was damaged entirely by the students who couldn’t control their furry.

(ii)        Excess Admission of Students:

The UNN of yester-years is no longer to UNN of present.  Then, when admission was purely on merit and within a certain range of student per department for school for years.  This time a class exceeds one hundred (100) student as against the classroom standard of 25-50.  This overcrowded situation makes consumable resources transportation.  In particular, sources because the students wouldn’t be well accommodated within the school thereby forcing them to live off-campus.

(iii)       Lack of Enough Accommodation (Hostel):

Almost every Nigerian child dream of being or having his higher secondary school in UNN.

Management should make available hostels for the growing population of situation of students wishing to school in this school.  This should likewise extend to the lecturers and other staff of the institution because they co-exist to make things going.  In assurance of admission, accommodation should be the first thing to be looked into in order to not to admit more than necessary.  If these should be put into consideration, the transportation problem will be alleviated because no student will ever think of going to the town to reside when there is accommodation for him or her within the school.


I say negligence and ignorance is solely committed by those in authority and the informed by this one is aware of his duty an fails to execute it.  The government in this vein, has school management in their hands.  They are aware that school State/nation cannot achieve its own, unless through their expertise and perfection in matters of state or morale can only be attained through education.  Perfection or a perfect man according to Aristotle is that person who has potentials fully developed or put to us.

Ignorance on the other hand is absence of knowledge.  This is mainly associated with uninformed people.  They know not the value of education and hence do not support to uplift it.  Its standard, it is only in Nigeria that those at the corridor of power can shutdown learning institution for a year and lectures dismissed without just case.  This cannot happen in western countries.  Most parents send their children to learn trade for quick money without giving a second thought to education.  Such parents see education as expensive that do not yield quick returns.


The quest for easy and fast money on the part of the driver add salt to sore.  The drivers playing this route like fare at which they collect from students and the okada men in the campus collect N20.00 from Nsukka terminal bus stop to the main campus gate which is not suppose to be.  In Enugu Campus, the story is not different, taxi collect N10.00 from gate to within the campus that is not up to 5 minutes drive.  This does not help the situation rather it worsens the transportation problem.


This by no means scale has aided transportation fare to soar.  Following the president’s pronouncement of the increase in fuel prices this year, transportation have been at ease this year and fuel dealers have refused to lower the prices of pump to the new approved N22.00 per litre.  There’s always frequent fight in the petroleum stations as to the price of a litre and as to who should buy first.  This did not stop there, but also extended to passengers and driver because place that use to be N10.00 is doubled to N20.00.  Our molue don’t accept N5.00 any longer, Enugu bus to Nsukka used to be N30.00 but is now N70.00 even UNEC to the medical school (UNTH) at Ugboro has doubled.  Who is to be blamed?  This is a managerial problem from the Federal.


Development is never found in an environment where the bricks of chaosis laid.  Most often the students themselves help to aggregate their condition by their indiscipline and lawless act of them see school vehicle as nobody properly and as a result, inflict malice on them by either deflating the tyres, breaking the glosses or removing the seats.

Wherever the students are aggrieved and want to demonstrate whether peaceful or otherwise, school properties are their target.  They destroy them set some ablaze.  At the end, they will be the one to suffer, most often they refuse to pay the commercial drivers that carries them.  And if they will even wish to pay, they wouldn’t pay the correct fare.  They maltreat the drivers at time this makes most of the good ones to vow not pay such route again, and this strictly or indirectly adds to their transportation trauma.


The transportation problem of this school is further compounded by the nearness of her sister institution like ESUT that is non-residential and IMT (particularly residential).  The UNEC arms have ESUT Main Campus, IMT and OSISATECH to continue with while the Nsukka arm has ESUS Nsukka pre-science and medical campus to contend.

ESUT students and IMT which is more or less a poultry breeding or piggery zone where you can here a class consistency of over 1200 students.  Student from these two institutions illegally reside in UNEC hostel, adding to their accommodation problem hence, complexity the transportation problem of the school student of these institution struggles for the limited buses with the UNEC students.  The Nsukka Campus faces the same problem.  This has increased since last 2 years when ESUT started their so called pre-science programme in that region.

1.3              THE USE OF WORM-OUT VEHICLES:

At this age and time, our roads are still field with vehicles that are not road worthy such vehicle hardly gets to their destination without either the tyre exploding or radiator over heating, thereby keeping the passenger at the middle of the road.  The authorities concerned to keep off unworthy vehicle of the roads don’t carry out the duty effectively they collect bribe at time and leave these dead trap that calls itself vehicle to continue.  Playing on our roads, the higher cost of brand cars/vehicles compared to the fairly used ones called to cumbo necessitate the dumping off cut road vehicle in Nigeria roads.  Hence Nigeria is being used as a dumping ground by the Western nations.


Wishes never be without conception, strong desire and positive action steadily put a work and a rightly said solved. The necessary step to curb it is applied effectively and efficiently the following steps can be taken to limit the problem so far identical.


The managers of the school should stop admitting more students than necessary so that the available resources could suffice for the student populace.  If the number of admitted students is to the capacity of the school, then there wouldn’t be such problems.  Capable minds should be given the chance to man the school management, a round peg in a round hole, then thing will make in its direction.

The absence of good student union governance also contributes to their problem where the students do have good and strong union by able and capable hands.  The student will be lawless and indiscipline on high.  There will always be the ones properly syndrome and school properties will be damaged one after the other.

ii.         RE-ORIENTATION:

The government, the staff and the student should be oriented differently from the previous held ones.  The orientation should help the different parties see themselves as partners in progress and not arch-enemies or rivals.

The government or one should see education as the foundation of the nation.  The students of given the best education calls for a better future for the nation/society.  The staff, students and the government should work harmoniously for the betterment of the nation because of the education sector is affected.  Invariably, other sector will follow suit.  Students should see school and government properly as their own because they will one day come out to control them.


More building for students and likewise should be put to place.  A situation whereby above 80% of the student are well accommodated within the campus will in no small scale reduce transportation problem in the campus.  This will make the school easier to control and co-ordinate as the student and staff are always within reach.  This will also provide the student the opportunity to fully utilize the libraries sport equipment etc.


The existence of the way or the other calls for transportation or either the part of the student or the lecture (staff).  There was once a final year mechanical engineering student from Nsukka who frequently UNEC Campus of the institution for this Project Supervisor who was residing in the UNEC campus.  The supervisor of his was sick and couldn’t transport himself to Nsukka.  If these two campuses system are non existent such a problem wouldn’t have arose.


The damaged vehicle should be put in order.   If these damaged vehicles are in order and on roads, the commercial driver will not monopolize the market again.  They have competitors and eventually cut-down their fairs.

Moreso, the school should put some vehicle on the Nsukka route to reduce the high price.


With the study, the problem facing or hindering human resources development could be made known to the authorities concerned.

The manager could through this see their faults, lapses because it is rightly said that one finds it difficult to see or remove the nut in one eye.  Though this research, the lapses of management could be made known to them for effective re-orientation both on the part of government and the management and also the student as well.

Like any other person in a particular position, it should be known that education is a preparatory ground for the nation manpower development and that due regard should be accorded to them.  It will make us understand that what we give to our young, the same shall they give to the society.  If you sow good, good shall you pluck.

1.5              DEFINITION:

It is pertinent indeed to clear all doubts about the meaning of transportation, to the understanding of the common mind.  In simple term, transportation could be defined as the movement of people, goods and services from one location to another.  This could be classified into the following categories.

(a)        INTER-STATE:  This is transportation from one State to another State.  E.g. Anambra State to Ebonyi State.

(b)        INTRA-STATE:  Is transportation within a State, city, town etc e.g. Awgu to Ngwo.

(c)        INTER-COUNTRY:  This is transportation from one country to another.  In this case, one basic semblance is that people, goods and services are being moved from one location to another for life continuity and sustenance.  This is also because resources by nature are evenly distributed.


Terms to be defined are as follows:

INTRA:           Prefix between or among e.g. International.

RAIL LINE: Track on iron rails on which train run.

SPACE CRAFT:  Vehicle for travel beyond or large passengers propelled by a paddle or paddies.

SHIPS:  large sea going vessel.

TRAMP: Travel on foot, hike, walk heavily.

STEAMERS: Steam propelled ship container to cook good in steam.

ULTRALOPTHELUS OR STONE-AGE:  Prehistoric period when took were made of stone.


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