manpower development and workers productivity in nigeria

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Civil service is the bureaucratic institution which controls the entire administration and machinery of government. Over the years the Nigeria civil service has undergone different reforms in the hand of executives which were established by decree and bills. The main aim of each reform is to bring about efficiency and effectiveness in the civil service but yet still the sole aim has not been achieved.

The research method used in this project is survey research. Based on these findings the major recommendations are:  Training and developing the workforce should be held in high esteem. Employees should be provided with required instruments, equipments and materials to facilitate and exhibit their trained skill and technical competence.Over politicization of vacant posts should be discouraged but professionalism and rewarded in the workforce for a result oriented civil service to be achieved.

Lack of training and development programmes which ought to be continuous in the system. Monitoring the workforce to be result oriented is lacking, abuse of quota system or Federal character and inadequate provision of facilities that will enable the personnel of the service to perform better. Above all, is the high level of corruption and untold influences and pressures from the executives and political class which frustrate the workforce.


List of Tables


Table of Contents



1.1         Background of study

1.2         Statement of the problem

1.3         Objective of the study

1.4         Significance of the study

1.5         Research Questions

1.6         Research Hypotheses

1.7         Scope of the study

1.8         Limitation of the Study

1.9         Definition of Terms




2.1       Civil Service

2.2       Manpower Development

2.3       Productivity

2.4       Synthesis / Summary of Literature Review




3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of Study/ Historical Background

3.3       Population    of the Study

3.4       Sample Size and Sample Technique

3.5       Source of Data

3.6       Instrument

3.7       Validity of the Instrument

3.8       Reliability of the Instrument

3.9       Method of Data Collection

3.10    Method of Data Presentation and Analysis




4.1       Data Presentation

4.2       Data Analysis

4.3       Discussion of Results




5.1       Summary of Findings

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations




1. Distribution of Respondents status.

2. Distribution according to years of service.

3. Distribution according to qualification.

4. Personnel trained locally.

5. Personnel trained overseas.

6. The Rapidity of ESCS management and time frame 1991-


7. Rapidity of turnover of ESCS staff 1991-2006.

8. Table 9: Respondents

9. Table 10.1: Respondents

10. Table 10.2: Respondents Calculated Value

11. Table 11.1: Respondents

12. Table 11.2 and 11.3: Respondents Calculated Value

13. Table 11.4: Respondents Calculated Value

14. Table 12.1: Respondents

15. Table 12.2: Respondents Calculated Value

16. The population of the trained and untrained staff (ESCS) and their ratio.




Nigerian Civil Service today was inherited from the colonial masters-Britain, although the colonialists operated this to her profits but to the detriment of Nigeria.

Civil service is a term used to cover those employed under the Federal and State government, particularly those employed by either the federal or state civil service commission.

The Nigerian civil service became indigenous after independence in October 1, 1960. This did not come with easily, there were demands and agitations from the nationalists who had it rough with colonialists before independence. On this note Nicholson (1969) wrote “there have been demands by the nationalists for the Nigerianization of civil service before independence”.

The civil service has undergone some reforms like in General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida regime started a revolutionary reform exercise, in the civil service Dele Olowu (1988) said, “since 1988 reforms, we have witnessed the absence of legitimacy and competence among the most powerful cliques as well as the subvention of   public interest in all its ramification, corruption has remained pervasive with its devastating consequences”.

The reform empowered and gave the Minister (Commissioner in the State) the overall authority and he controls the ministry as his personal   affairs.

The minister being the accounting officer becomes the almighty that has the final say and does not care if his administrative operations and policies are conducive beneficial   to the ministry and the nation at large.

Civil service is the backbone of the government, for it controls the entire administrative machinery of the government. The civil service as a bureaucratic institution having a crop of individuals from all works of life within the society is organized to carry out the activities of the government both on administration and business aspect.

The word bureaucracy has over the years acquired an odious connotation. This associated with inefficiency, lack of initiative and unintelligent rigidity in the approach to human problems. This is the sum total impression that comes to mind when the word bureaucracy is mentioned and applied to the way civil servants go about their normal business. This is the reason Nwagbo Eze (1981) observed that  “many achievement oriented shrewd observers of Nigeria people at work have always come out with a common impression that generally Nigeria workers are lazy, slow, sleepy, reluctant to act, unconcerned and deceitful in their approach. These workers are said to lack the zeal, the briskness, and momentum of hard working people and generally, they dislike hearing people talk about efficiency, dedication, honesty, competence, determination and productivity all of which characterized achievement. People in a production oriented society”.

Then the big question starring before us is, are Nigerian workers in the civil services lazy and inefficient? By their nature are they sleepy, incompetent, slow, and lack the zeal to work­? What are the factors surrounding low productivity in the civil service and what should be remedies?

As stated earlier, that Nigerian civil service has passed through regime and political processes some of which came with drastic measures ( like retrenchment, desolution and redeployment of top management officers as government change battin ) that left the service in tartars.

Civil service has suffered in the hands of ethnic politics and dichotomy, nepotism, godfatherism, corruption at the highest level, unnecessary interference from the ruling class because of political party’s policies, programmes and influences. But as part of manpower development are not addressed properly. Although there is policy on manpower development but implementation and funding lacks the executive support for its execution to the letter.

Pointing on the need for manpower development in civil service for required workers productivity, Nwachukwu (1988) said that “employee productivity is a function of ability, will and situational factors. An organization may have employees of ability and determination with appropriate equipment and management support, yet productivity falls below expected standards. The missing factor in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and knowledge which are acquired through training and development”.

Civil service personnel are wonderful instruments and assets in the government administrative activities.

As we know that change is constant, they need encouragement, incentives and all it takes to help them explore and rise to another level in order to withstand and measure up with the challenges obtainable in other nation’s civil service. What they need mostly coupled with incentives and encouragement is training and development to achieve this fit. If they are equipped with area, only time will tell the level of resultant benefits we will reap through civil service to the betterment of Nigeria.


In the process of data sourcing for this research work, there are problems facing Enugu state civil service which in one way or the other is peculiar to the entire civil service in Nigeria. There is problem of inefficiency and lack of drive among a great number of workers in the workforce coupled with low productivity. Also, inadequate training and development programmes and facilities for the manpower and there is no proper funding and sponsoring of personnel to undergo training and development courses.

Furthermore, the welfare and proper conducive working condition of the workforce not addressed properly. Result oriented management that can organize, direct and coordinate human and material resources to achieve aims and objectives is lacking.

Finally, unnecessary intervention and pressures from the political and executive class on the civil service has made vacant posts politicized thereby trusting professionalism and expertise.  This also brought class struggle among management staff and to some extent goes down to subordinate groups, which causes lack of enabling work environment within the services community with tribal problems on ground.

From the problems stated we ask these questions what is the cause of inefficiency and lack of drive among the workforce? And what should be the remedies? Also looking at low productivity in the workforce, has inadequate training and development of the workers any thing to do with it? Or does the issue of improper dressing to workers welfare and working Condition added to it? What can the government and management do to help civil service thrive in this millennium era?


Looking at the problems identified from the research work which revealed thus:

Problem one, inefficiency and lack of drive/ inadequate training and development programmes.

Second problem is lack of adequate welfare/ proper conducive working condition and bad management.

Thirdly is the problem of excessive political and executive pressure with tribal sentiments in the service community.

The purpose of this study is to examine the way to address and establish proper and well organized training and development programmes which will help in eliminating inefficiency and lack of drive among Enugu state civil servants.

Thereby helps to improve the skill and technical competence of the workers.  Secondly, to examine the workforce, their needs, problems and environment and seek a way to address them properly which will boost their morale. Also the way to have and maintain a result oriented management that will move the service forward.

Finally, to seek a way in which the political and executive pressure will be minimized in order to allow the civil service to flourish as supposed and to bring a lasting solution to tribal problems in the service community.


The research project study is on manpower development and workers productivity in Enugu state civil service. The importance of this study is that it focused mostly on the proper training and development of workers in an organization. The problems of the workforce and how to tackle them for the attainment or organization objectives and goals

The role of good management of human and material resources which brings about quantitative and qualitative productivity.

In this study, if the reasons for manpower development and steps to tackles  or handle the needs and problems of the workforce are taken into consideration and good management of human and material resources is in place, we will see an empowered civil services with  high level of productivity in Nigeria.

Further, this study will be of great help and importance to many organization like banking sector, oil and energy sector and even the universities which is in education sector. This is because humans are determining factor to any organization’s upliftment, establishment, objectives and goals.


1. Training and development activities help to improve the skill and technical competence of the workers.

2.         Inadequate training/ manpower development has become a problem that gave rise to inefficiency amid Enugu state civil servants.

3.         Proper management and Conducive working condition will foster workers to increase their out put in Enugu State civil service.

4.         Excessive political and executive pressure impedes

professionalism and expertise in Enugu state civil service but makes room for politics in the service.


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