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the impact of industrialization on rural development in nigeria. (a case study of eket local government)
THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY OF EKET LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
In this research work titled “the impact of industrialization on rural development” the researcher Identified small scale industries in Awgu and evaluate efforts made towards managing rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. Ascertained the role of Government in the management of rural development through industrialization, especially in Awgu Local Government. determined the impact of industrialization on rural development. Identified the problems militating against rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources which include Primary and Secondary sources of data Collection. Primary data: questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect information from the respondents. Secondary data: journals, and other relevant materials relating to the area of my investigation were reviewed. Research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. Chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses. At the end the researcher found out that managing rural development through industrialization is still in the infant stage in the areas of social amenities like good road networks, drinkable water, electricity etc. the researcher found out that the people of the area or council is agreed as a result of negligence by the government. It was also observed during the course of this work that some town in Awgu are so much bound by their tradition, which their belief forbids certain developmental plans needed to be carried out in such areas. Based on the findings the researcher hereby recommends that The appropriate people concerned in the development should always remember that the urban area was once a remote in either word that they should try as much as possible to bring up new talents in the village by building good roads, electricity, and all the likes because it will go a long way in developing their physically, mentally, spiritually and otherwise. Government should provide Good road for the residence of Awgu LGA. Non-Governmental Agencies should encourage small scale industries in Awgu LGA by giving them loan to enhance their business. Government should reduce the rate of loan repayment interest rate paid by small business operators in the rural areas as well as Awgu LGA.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
1.7 Limitations of the Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
2.0 Review of the Related Literature 10
2.1 Conceptual Framework 10
2.1.1 The concept of industrialization 10
2.1.2 The Concept of Globalization 16
2.1.3 Concept of Development 19
2.2 Theoretical Framework 22
2.2.1 Leadership Theory 22
2.2.2 Management theories 25
2.3 Empirical Review 32
3.1 Research Design 39
3.2 Area of Study 39
3.3 Population of the Study 44
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 44
3.5 Sources of Data 44
3.6 Research Instrument 45
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 45
3.8 Method of Data Collection 46
3.9 Method of Data presentation and Analysis 46
4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion of Result
4.1 Data Presentation 48
4.2 Analysis of Data 49
4.3 Analysis with Respect to Research 50
4.4 Discussion of Findings 56
5.0 Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary Finding 61
5.2 Recommendation 63
5.3 Conclusion 64 Bibliography 66
Appendix I 70
1.1 Background of the Study
In 1976, a uniform system of local government was introduced according to local government reform of 1976, the primary motive is to take development direct from the centre to the people at the rural areas through the local government. Hence, the same reform describe local government as a tool for rural development, some of those motives are the conscious attempt for the federal government to involve people in the management of their rural affairs through which the human and material resources of the rural dwellers can be effectively mobilized, tapped and advanced into industrialization process [Odenigwe (2008:5)] .
Since Nigeria started existing as a nation, development has been taking place especially in the urban areas for the fact that man often crave for what is good, it is often that people usually rush to urban area where there are provisions for the comfort and welfare of man by ways of social amenities and the infrastructure provision. This exodus of people is necessitated by the fact that rural areas are often neglected in terms of development, but those who rush to develop (urban) areas seem to have forgotten that there is every need to develop the rural sector too [Odenigwe (2008:5)] .
Odenigwe (2008:5), postulated that the rural subsection of the economy is endowed with abundant natural resources unharnessed and to harness them would require integrating rural people in the rural development exercise through the provision of small scale industries of different types.
According to Spie (2006:23) Industrialization can be defined as an integrated process of developing industries that would extract, manufacture or convert raw materials into finished goods and services. Industries can mean different things to different people and circumstance. Spie (2006:89) stated that industrialization embraces the means by which man controls or modifies his natural environment, is like major means of people adjusting to environment. It has to do with techniques and tools with which people utilize the material resources of their environment to satisfy their various needs and desires.
Industrialization is a technical knowhow, service ideas, information body of knowledge, materials or goods and services capable of being systematic and sequential in the generation, communicable and adoptable to application in a given economic, political, social and cultural count against this background. It is on this platform that the subject matter managing rural development through industrialization was drawn. In managing rural development, the basic role of management is planning, organizing, directing and controlling. It is the research collective view that managers lead other than plan, direct manpower rather than control [Spie (2006:89)] .
The effectiveness of management arises from leadership effort rewards. The simultaneous creation of a co-operative and learning organization is to facilitate the implementation process of management practices, which when implemented supports rural national development organization survival and effective utilization of resources for the benefit of mankind [Odenigwe (2008:5)] .
1.2 Statement of the problem
One of the main reasons for creating local government is to bring development very close to people in the rural areas. However, the problem here is that some noble objectives are not being put into practice or being really actualized. Why is the problem of technological know how in industrialization process characterized by lack of infrastructure and intensive use of human labour.
Studies have shown that there are so many programms that are to be proposed and implemented by the government towards reducing or eradicating technological dependency and other associated issues in rural development. Previous studies have shown that there are factors militating against the transportation of farm produce from the rural to urban areas. Small scale industries are faced with the problem of poor management [Spie (2006:89)] .
1.3 Objectives of the study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of industrialization on rural development. Specifically the study intends to:
- Identify small scale industries in Awgu and evaluate efforts made towards managing rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State (2006-2015).
- Ascertain the role of Government in the management of rural development through industrialization, especially in Awgu Local Government Area(2006-2015).
- Determine the impacts of industrialization on rural development?
- Identify the problems militating against rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local (2006-2015).
- Suggest possible solutions to the problems militating against rural development through industrialization in Government Area Awgu Local Government Area (2006-2015).
1.4 Research Questions
In an attempt to diagnose and identify the factors that hinder or encourage rural development through industrialization, the following research questions have been raised:
- How many small scale industries do we have in Awgu and what are the efforts made by small scale industries in Awgu towards managing rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. (2006-2015)?
- What are the role of Government in the management of rural development through industrialization, especially in Awgu Local Government Area (2006-2015).
- What are the impacts of industrialization on rural development (2006-2015)?
- What are the problems militating against rural development through industrialization in Awgu Local Government Area?
- What are the possible ways of solving the problems militating against rural development through industrialization in study Area?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study may be beneficial to the society, investors, rural dwellers and researchers.
On the part of the students, I have no doubt that the study may be of immense importance to students who may wish to conduct future research on the subject matter, it would serve as a reference material. To the rural dweller. It may help them appreciate the depth of natural resources available in rural setting in development through industrialization process, it may bridge the gap in rural-urban migration.
Finally, the society as a whole stands the chance to benefit from the output of the study. The society standard of living would improve, employment may be generated, policy makers through this study may understand why it is necessary to promote industrial projects. They may also understand that the leadership efforts are needed to pioneer industrialization process.
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is the research bounding, this is on rural development, how it can be managed through industrialization process. The focus area is Awgu Local Government area in Enugu state. The study is also to identify factors militating against the provision of rural infrastructure and enabling environment for business to flourish in the rural areas.
1.7 Limitations of the study
The limitations of this work are those constraints which I encountered during my research. One of the constraints is the problem of collecting my questionnaire items which gave me a kind of stress, because I have to travel all the way to my place of study to carryout my investigations.
During my interactions with the villagers, some of them neglected me and left me with little or no response. Another constraint I encountered was the problem of finance because during my research, a lot of money was needed for me to transport my self in search of my research materials. That not withstanding, all the hurdles were surmounted and the research well completed at last.
1.8 Definition of Terms.
To make this research clearer and understandable, some terms are defined by the researcher to make the research comprehensive.
v Small Scale Industry: These are those whose annual turnover dose not exceed N200,000,000 or capital expenditure dose not exceed N200,000,000.(C B N).
v Cooperative: This is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically-controlled enterprise(ICA1995).
v Development: Development can be defined as a structures, attitude, institutions as multidimensional process involving changes in well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of the absolute poverty.
v Rural Development: Rural Development is undoubtedly one of the oldest and most popularly acclaimed vehicle for the transformation of most societies allover the world.
v Industrialization: It can be defined as an integrated process of developing industries that would extract, manufacture or convert raw materials into finished goods and services, and also create job opportunity to the rural people.
v Rural Area: this connotes the interior or remote parts of the local government which the central government wants to develop by creating local government.(aremu,(2010).
v Local Government: the third tier of government with in the state charged with the responsibility of development and administration of people at the grass root level. (Ejeakanonu,2007)