cause and effects of deviant behaviour in higher institutions of learning (case study of enugu urban, enugu state)

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This research on the causes and Effects of Deviant Behaviour in higher institutions of learning is designed  to look into the main causes and effects of deviancy in out higher institutions.  The school is a social organization nad has got it’s established patterns of behaviour expected from al its members.  The non-conformity to the norms of behaviour by members of any group or organization is what sociologist called “Deviant Behaviour”.

The researcher tried to find out the extent to which the age if students, family background, the school, lecturers and our society in general contribute to the act of deviancy in our higher institutions.  The hypothesis also stated that many students perform poorly academically as a result of deviant acts and that deviancy may hider student future success.

The researcher was based on three higher institutions (that is) two universities and one polytechnic in Enugu urban of Enugu state. 90 questionnaires were distributed out and 80 were collected back and used for the study.  The data collected was presented with the percentage method.


Chapter one


1.0              Background of the study

1.1              Statement of the problem

1.2              Purpose of the study

1.3              Significance of the study

1.4              Limitation to the study

1.5              Research question

Chapter two  

2.0              Literature review

2.1              Deviance in school

2.2              Causes of deviancy

2.3              Personality approach

2.4              The large society factor

Chapter three           

Research methodology and procedure

3.0              Design of the study

3.1              Population

3.2              Sample and sampling techniques

3.3              Research instrument

3.4              Description of instrument used

3.5              Distribution and collection of data

3.6              Validity of instrument used

3.7              Method of data analysis

Chapter four

4.0              Presentation and analysis of data

Chapter five

Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.0              Summary of findings

5.1              Conclusion

5.2              Recommendations




Table 1            Response of family background contributing to

deviancy in Higher Institutions.

Table II 1        Responses on the contributions of

student’s age to deviancy

Table III          Responses of Lecturer’s contribution to

deviancy in our schools

Table IV          Responses on the way Lecturers contributes to

deviancy in our schools.

Table V           Responses in inability to adjust a student’s

leading to deviancy

Table VI          Responses on whether frustrated or lonely

students may deviate from school.

Table VII        Responses on contribution of lack of necessary facilities to students deviancy

Table VIII       Responses on the contribution of the ages in deviancy among students of higher institutions

Table IX          Responses on the contribution of the society to deviancy in higher institutions.

Table X           Responses on the students associations as groups of deviants in the school.

Table XI          Responses on the academic standard of deviant students.

Table XII        Responses on student’s academic performances in the examination

Table XIII       Responses on if deviancy can affect a person’s future success

Table XIV       Responses on reduction of deviancy through proper utilization of student’s energy and time

Table XV        Responses on solving deviancy act through Guidance and counseling.




1.0              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Deviant can be said to be all types of behaviour or acts which are inconsistent with the rules and regulations of an organizational set up.

Organization as defined by Ejiogu (1990) is a social unit that pursues specific goal which they are structured to serve. Typical organization includes prisons, schools, churches and universities.  In each organization members interact with one another to achieve the desired goal.  This type of inconsistent behaviour can be seen in the homes, societies, establishments or institutions of learning.

Social organization therefore can be described more operationally as the ways in which human conduct becomes socially organized and how the structure of the social relations therein and share beliefs and orientations that unit the members of the organization effect the members conduct.

The school is a social organization and as such it has got its established pattern of behaviour expected in the form of rules and regulations which given the official actions of the rector, lecturers, students and anyone group of personnel that work in it.

The noncomformity to the norms of any group or organization is what sociologist called “Deviant behaviour”.  It is a behaviour whereby one turns away from the social standard of the society.  IT is common in students of higher institutions not to follow the patterns of behaviour laid down for them by the school authority.  Higher education is the form of education received after secondary education and before going further to any other stage.  Students between the age of 18 and 24 are expected to be in higher institutions.  This is the age group where the students will be trying to understand their environment. While doing this many things may happen which may lead to juvenile delinquency, deviancy etc.  which are psychological problems.

It is very hard any day passes without any comment on it coming from individuals, newspapers, radio news and television news and bulletins.  Opinions are divided as to who is to blame for deviant behaviour in institutions of higher learning.  Some hold management boards and lecturers responsible while others hold parents and students. Yet a section argues that it is caused by government take-over of schools, lack of moral and religious instructions in schools and some say it is caused by inadequate supply of necessary equipment and personnel to schools.  Apart form these views expressed, it is clear that many students have no respect for their lecturers and this attitude they carry over outside the school.

No child can survive in isolation.  The peer group they move with, the parents, the school environment and our society in general contribute seriously to the problem of deviancy being faced in our community in general and higher institutions in particular.  Poor parental relationship causes deviant behaviour because some of the parents, in pursuit for money leave their children in the total care for themselves.

Deviant learning experience in the school giving society the false impression that the development are not taught in the school or that the school administration is weak.

In Nigeria society, deviancy may be conceived as a factor which militates against the good work of lecturers since it is believed that lecturers effectiveness is mostly evaluated in terms of student educational achievement and behaviour of the child.

Some of the common deviant behaviour include stealing, truancy, disobedience to school, parents and community at large, mass demonstration leading to destruction of property, drug abuse, smoking etc.

1.1              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

This study is an attempt to find out the causes and effects of Deviancy in tertiary institution.  As the wave of crime is mounting in our society, so also have experience and research shown that the rate at which school offences etc. are being committed in spite of strict school regulations.  There is no more respect for lecturers and even their own parents.

Students go to the extent of joining armed robbers assassinating people and even trafficking in drugs.  Higher institutions seem to turn to institute for senior criminals where future-armed robbers, hired killers, drug traffickers and secret cults are trained.  Our society is corrupt to the extent that these students are looking for material things fame and other things.

1.2              PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.                  The purpose of this research is to find out the causes, effects and views of students and lecturers about deviancy.

2.                  The effect on the students and lecturers about deviancy.

3.                  The effects on the students academic and behaviour in the society

4.                  It is also meant to find out the developmental stage that deviancy normally occur.

5.                  The effects of the society, family, peer group and school environment on higher institution deviancy will also be found out.

6.                  The study will also find out the contribution of lecturers and the society in general to deviancy.


This study will reveal the causes and effects of common deviant behaviours in some higher institutions of learning in Enugu. The finding of this research will throw more light to how each member of the society is contributing to the common deviant behaviour.

In this study, the students will benefit from it by knowing the implications of deviant behaviour in the academic, character and social life.  Some students indulge in it because their friends are behaving like that without knowing what they are doing to themselves.

Society will also benefit from it because when the student are behaving as expected, the society will be happy, their norms, belief will be respected and the social standard of the society will be improved.

Parents will be benefited because their children will be listening to their teaching.

The institution will benefit also because when the students have changed from their bad behaviour and turn to be new leave you see that there will be order, peace, discipline and standard in the school which will attract parents to sent in their children there.

It will further help students to know how to behave well that is know the good behaviour, know how to behave in the society, know the norms, belief and culture of the society.  Discipline in the school will be achieved.  Respect and obedience will be observed in the home

1.4              RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.                  What are the causes of deviant behaviour?

2.                  In what developmental stage does it normally occur?

3.                  What are the most common deviant behaviour in our institutions of higher learning today?

4.                  In what age range does deviancy occur mostly?

5.                  How does deviant behaviour affect students academic?

6.                  What extent has the society contributed to development behaviours?

7.                  How do we reduce the occurrence of deviancy in our schools?


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