Budgeting And Budgetary Control Techniques And Implementation In The Institution Of Higher Learning (A Survey Of Enugu State University Of Science And Technology

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Title Page                                                                                ii

Approval Page                                                                        iii

Dedication                                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                                   v

Table of contents                                                                     vi

List of table                                                                             ix

Abstract                                                                                  x


1.0               Introduction                                                                  1

1.1               Background of the Study                                    1

1.2               Objectives of the Study                             4

1.3               Research Questions                                             5

1.4               Hypothesis                                                                   6

1.5               Significance of the study                                     7

1.6               Delimitation of the Study                                    7

1.7               Definition of Terms                                             8


2.0               Review of Related Literature                                        10


3.0               Research Design and methodology                               37

3.1               Research Design                                                  37

3.2               Area of Study                                                     38

3.3               Population of the Study                                      38

3.4               Sample and Sampling producer                          39

3.5               Determination of sample size                              39

3.6               Instrument of Data Collection                             40

3.7               Method of Data Presentation                              41

3.8               Method of Data Analysis                                    41


4.1            Data Presentation and Results                                       43


5.0     Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion              56

5.1     Discussion of Findings                                                  56

5.2     Recommendation                                                           58

5.3     Conclusion                                                                     59

5.4     Limitation of the Study                                                  59

References                                                                      60

Appendices                                                                    62



TABLE 4.1          Responses on consideration of budget as an effective means of planning universities activities.

TABLE 4.2          T-test analysis on the effect of budgeting in the financial management of higher institution.

TABLE 4.3          Consideration of budget exercise as a strategic decision.

TABLE 4.4          T-test analysis of the difference between the preparation of annual budget and strategic decisions.

TABLE 4.5          Perception of middle level and top level, staff of ESUT Enugu on the failure of universities to budget implementation

TABLE 4.6          T-test analysis on the relationship between the failure of universities and budget implementation.



          This study was focused on the application of budgets and budgetary control, techniques and implementation in the institution of higher learning a survey of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT).

The aim of the study is to determine whether budgets and budgetary control technique is a key factor in planning and controlling functions of the management in the Universities, to find out how ESUT can forecast and plan further operations and co-ordinations to ensure harmony, again to determine the role of budget as a tool for effective and efficient management of resources.

To guide this study more a review of literature was done to expose the researcher to what has already been done to ensure that budgeting department have role to played in the university.

A structured questionnaire was developed and administered to 80 staff of ESUT Enugu (50 middle level and 30 top level management staff.

Fourteen (14) items questionnaire was used and data collected were analysed using cluster variables hypothesis was also tested.  Findings were made and recommendations based on the findings were also made thereafter.



1.0                                 INTRODUCTION


The success of an organization can be derived from the efficiency and effectiveness of its resource use.  Some organizations can do well with minimum resources, but there are others which do not do well even with abundant resources.  The difference, between both depends on the method of allocation of resources and the use to which they are put.  As a result, the importance of resources management in achieving organizational success cannot be under estimated.  And so the need for a planning and control, management of any university must always look into the post, present and plan for the future.  The performance is helpful in planning for the future, in sense that it provides basic for estimating the probable future operating conditions.

Fundamentally, management is the con-ordination of human efforts that is the accomplishment of goals by utilizing the effort of other people.  The management process may be viewed as the total management effort operating in a particular endeavour that include that basic management functions planning,. Co-ordination and control to accomplish specific objectives.

One of the most important approaches that has been developed for facilitating effective performance of these management functions is budgeting.

A budget is a plan quantified in monetary terms prepared and approved subject to a defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated or expenditure to be incurred during the period and the capital employed to attain a given objective.  Budget has been defined by different people, Economist defined it as an official document showing the expected revenue and expected expenditure for a given fiscal year.

Cost accountant defined it a plan quantified in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time, usually showing planned income to be generated or expenditure to be incurred during that period and the capital employed to attain a given objective.

To the management accountant, it is a formal expression of managerial plans.  Its quantities and financial terms encompassing different phases of business operations and aimed at helping management towards the attainment of organization objectives.

Planning, which according to Ogbozor (1999) involves mental effort by which the executives anticipate the possible census or factors that may effect or change the activities and objectives of a particular  organization.   With the end in view of controlling the nature and direction of changes and determining what measures or actions necessary to accomplish pre-determined goals, is an important function of budgeting.

Budgeting is concerned about making plans for the future, implementing these plans and monitoring activities to see whether they conform to the plans.

Co-ordination is the synchronization of individual action with the result that each sub-division of an entity effectively works towards the common objectives.  It involves the interpersonal relationship of people in the work situation, as they exchange view, ideas, prejudices and other attitudes.  Budgeting provides for the co-ordinations of activities, particularly through master budget which summarize all the supporting budgets.

Planning and controlling functions of management has budgetary control as its accounting tools.  Budgetary control may be described as a managerial activity that relate to responsibility centres of an organization.  It is also the use of budgets for assignment of responsibilities, planning and controlling performance and guiding managerial and other activities towards the achievement of organizational goals.

There are various budgeting techniques like zero-base budgeting, planning programming budgeting system, traditional budgeting.   Budgeting control techniques and budgets is a key factor in planning and controlling function of management in Nigeria Universities.

It tried to find out if the profitability of universities depends on the effective budgetary control system is use.

To know which of the budgetary techniques is best used for efficient management and period of which it lovers.


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