A Study Of Prospects And Problems Of Timber As External Material In Building Production In Hot Climate Region

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Title page





Table of content


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Significant of the study

1.4 Purpose of the study

1.5 Research questions

1.6 Scope and limitation of the study

1.7 Definitions of terms


2.0 Literature review

2.1 Building Surveying cover the following area

2.2 Equipment used for Building Surveying

2.3 Procedure for Building Surveying

2.4 Survey Reports

2.4.1 Division of Properties

2.2 General Report

2.5 A Building surveying report on identification of building defects

determination of causes and proposed appropriate remedies

(A study on Imo State Bungalow)


3.0Research Methodology

3.1 Research design

3.3 Population

3.4 Sample

3.5 Method of data collection

3.5 Data analysis technique


4.0 Data presentation and analysis


5.0 Summary

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations







Timber an external material in building production simply means using timber on the external part of the building such as timber work covering, timber external walls, and timber external windows, doors and frames.

Timber use practices in building production industry is endowed with a variety of tree species in her nature forests and in recent years there has been an increase in the establishment of exotic trees species such as pine and eucalyptus on plantations. Despite the abundance of wood resources, wood has been under-utilized with a view that it is material to be avoided due to its perceived unreliability, variability and unknown properties.

Generally, timber research has been academic and has concentrated on a few tree species, resources have not explored the key indicators of wood strength such as bending stiffness and bending strength, they have concentrated on density which has been reported as poor surrogate strength. This is purely the reason timber users cannot accept lesser-known timber. Limited studies have been done to predict the allowance load from bad deflection relationship. This is probably the reason timber users prefer timber with proven track record, a practice which unfortunately exerts pressure on well-known timber species leading to their building environment coupled with population growth and dwindling wood resources globally necessitates research into optional use of multiple trees species with quality control procedures.

The aim of the study was to examine timber use practices with emphasis on analysing weakness and strength in the application of wood as an external material in building.

Timber is a cellular material consisting of minute cell called fibre or trenched which have inter-communicating pits or values that allow water and solutions to be conducted throughout the structure.

The word timber described wood, which has been cut for use in building. Timber has many advantages as a building material. It is high weight material that is easy to cut, shape and join by relatively cheap and simple hand or power operated tools in the production of timber. Timber is used all parts of building such as farm work, doors and windows, frames, timber, wall plates, floors and also in roof carcass. Timber is a very important material in building production which helps to facilitate building construction. As a structural material it has favourable weight to lots of elasticity relations and coefficients of thermal expansion, values density and specific heat with sensible selection, fabrication and fixing and adequate impregnation or protection. It is a reasonable durable material in relation to the life of most building, wood burn at temperature of about 3500 and chairs, the chaired outer face of the wood protecting the unborn inner wood for period adequate for escape during fire in most building.

Timber is the greatest renewable resources in the building material field. As a building material, it has inherent characteristics which determine its application in construction with a recent better understanding of timber coupled with availability of sound structural design of timber structures and development of economical processing and presentation process, greater or more efficient use in building made of timber in construction.

Generally, timber offers numerous advantages in construction application like beauty, workability, low cost per kg, high strength to weight ratio, good electricity installation and low temperatures.

Timber research explored the use of timber in building construction industry as one of the most important material in construction. Timber has been used in building in most parts of the world for thousands of years it is natural, renewable and easy to use material. Timber is only building material that properly used positively benefits the plants and our relationship to it. Wood as a building material has the further advantages of being low in the consumption of energy needed in its processing, and hence in its overall impact on the biosphere. The conversion of a tree into kiln 5.3 mega joules a kilo, but 35mj/kg are needed to produce a kilo of steel and a staging 145 for aluminium. Timber is the only building material that has empathy i.e. quantities. We identify with wood from the cradle to the coffin. It is the only really sustainably building material. It is the one which properly manage and abundantly used, canactually improve the quality of life in the planet because of the ability to look up carbon.

Timber is one of the natural building materials. This has a lot of advantages; generally, timber is not toxic, does not leak, chemical vapour into the building and is safe to handle and touch. It also means that as timber ages it does so naturally and doesn’t breakdown into environmentally damaging materials.



With my observation and research in building material, I observed that timber as a building material is at low cost. This is to say that timber is the cheaper material in building production, due to high cost of certain materials like aggregates, sand, cement and roofing sheets.

Cost comparisons are difficult to make between timber frame and other construction materials. Actual constructions costs are probably a few percentage points higher for a typical timber frame over brick and block, architects and builders less experienced in timber frame construction tend to increase their prices to compensate for the extra time needed to ensure that the design is correct. This project is a comprehensive study of timber to ascertain the suitability of timber and usefulness as a building material.

Generally, despite the numerous contributions of timber to the construction companies, there is still lot of problems associated with the use of timber in construction. Some of these problems are lack of knowledge in timber treatment methods, non-availability of standard timber connector. Cost effectiveness in the usage of timber, non-conformity of timber available in market and many other problems associated with the use of timber as an external material in building production in hot climate.



The main aim of this study is to assess the problems and prospects of timber as an external material in building production in hot climate.

The following are the specific objectives of the study:

  1. To determine the various problems and prospects of timber in building the external parts of the building.
  2. To determine the functions of timber in building production.
  3. To evaluate the quality of wood used by the contractors as external material building production.
  4. To determine the factors militating against effective use of timber as external material in building production.
  5. To suggest the best ways of minimizing the problems associated with the use of timber in building production.
  6. To regain the need and value of timber as a building material.
  7. To achieve the natural quantity of timber as a building material i.e. aesthetics.



This research work will benefit so many people, the public who will benefit from this work in the following ways:

To serve as source of information to building clients, building, designers, students and several others.

The contractors will benefit immensely from this from this work, as the work will expose them to the problems and prospects of timber as an external material in building production in hot climate.

The study would be significant for students who might wish to use it as a basis for further research; it will serve as a board from which further research might take off. The data already gathered and documented in this project will serve as a source of information to students as well serve a reference material in their class room work.

The work will equally be of great importance to individual citizens of the country who would like to know more about the problem and prospects of timber as an external material in building production in hot climate.



For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. What are the various problems and prospects of timber in building?
  2. What are the functions of timber in building production?
  3. What is the main aim and objectives of using timber as a building material?
  4. Are there ways of preserving timber from insert and fungal attack?
  5. What are the types of preservatives?
  6. What is the method of preservation/application?



This research project will be focused on the problems and prospects of timber as an external material in building production in hot climate. Therefore the researcher will be limited to projects in Nigeria only.



Limitation in the cause of this research study on inadequate found to effectively carryout a through and comprehensive study of the topic.

Time constraint also hampered the effective study of the topic. Scarcity of new and current books dealing wholly of timber as our libraries are stocked without edition that does not incorporate new idea and finding some of these books just make passing references to timber without in dept discussion on them.

Inadequate data base compelled by professionals in wood technology in Nigerian timber relates information can be reliable sourced.



For easy understanding of the research work, the researcher has carefully defined the terminologies used in the research project. These are as follows:

  1. CONSTRUCTION: This is the building or creating of something.
  2. ASSESSMENT: This refers to the consideration and judgment of someone or something.
  3. TIMBER: Trees that is grown to be used in building or for marketing things.
  4. LUMBER: Pieces of furniture, and other large objects that you do not use anymore.
  5. CONVERSION: Is the term to the sawing up of the log into timber of marketable size, before the seasoning process.
  6. SEASONING: This is the removal of surplus moisture from the timber.
  7. WOOD PRESERVATION: Means the treating of wood with solution which makes it poisonous to insects and fungi.
  8. SAPWOOD CELLS: Are the growing of cells and have thin cellulose walls.
  9. SOFTWOOD: It is standard wood used for building construction, fairly strong, easily worked.
  10. HARDWOOD: Very strong, tough, hard and decorative easily to work with sharp tools.
  11. KILLS SEASONING: It consists of brick-built chamber in which the timber is stocked with stick between the boards.
  12. CHIP BOARD: Is a wood waste mixed with bonding and hardening agents and formed at high temperature in powerful process.
  13. CONTRACTOR: A contractor is a person or a company that does work for other people or companies especially in the building industries.
  14. BUILDING: A structure such as a house or school that has a roof and walls
  15. MATERIALS: This refers to substance that things can be made from.
  16. PRODUCTION: The act or a process of soothing naturally.

17.     HOT CLIMATE: This refers to a very hot tropic region

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