Aspects Of Kuturmi Morphology

  • Format
  • Pages
  • Chapters



  1. Kuturmi Genetic Tree.
  2. Kuturmi Consonant Chart
  • Kuturmi Oral vowel Chart
  1. Kuturmi Nasal Vowel Chart


Lists of charts /Abbreviation

Table of contents


  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Socio-Cultural Profile
  • Genetic Classification
  • Scope and Organization of the Study
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis
  • Review of the Framework


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic Phonological Concepts

2.3 Sound Inventory of kuturmi

2.3.1 Vowels Sound of kuturmi

2.3.2 Distribution of Segmental Sound of Kuturmi

2.3.3 Distribution of Consonants of Kuturmi

2.3.4 Distribution Vowels of Kuturmi

2.4 Kuturmi tone inventory

2.4.1 Distribution of Tones of Kuturmi

2.4.2 Tones Combination of Kuturmi

2.4.3 Phonemic Analysis of Tones in Kuturmi

2.5 Syllable Structure in Kuturmi

2.5.1 Syllable Structure Rule

2.6 Basic Morphological Concepts

2.6.1 Morphemes

2.7 Types of Morphemes

2.7.1 Free morphemes

2.7.2 Bound morphemes

2.8 Language Typology

2.8.1 Isolating Language

2.8.2 Agglutinating Language


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Morphemes

3.3 Parts of Speech in Kuturmi Language

3.3.1 The Noun

3.3.2 Verb

3.3.3 Adjective

3.3.4 Preposition

3.3.5 Pronoun

3.4 Cardinals

3.4.1 Ordinals

3.5 Gender


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Compounding

4.3 Affixation

4.3.1 Prefixation

4.3.2 Infixation

4.4 Borrowing

4.5 Refashioning


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations



In sentence

  1. Isode okora imagoro domi on

Sode eats mango she like it

Sode ate the mango because she likes it

  1. hepia jee kyan?

When you go

When did you go?

  1. Seni uboru omuwon?

Which bag mine

Which bag is mine?



 This research work is basically on the aspects of morphology of Kuturmi. By the term morphology, we mean the study of word structures and description of the minimal, meaningful forms in a language. The basic principle in morphology is principle of affixation. The derivation process of words, for instance, affixation, compounding in Kuturmi will be analysed.

In this chapter, we discussed the historical background of the Kuturnu speakers, socio linguistics profile under which we shall consider the culture, kingship and rulership system, occupation, religion, marriage, belief and naming. The genetic classification of the language.


The people who speak Kuturnu language are called Kuturnbawa people who haired from Daura province in Katsina state. Though the people claim not to have some origin with the Daura people, there is no clear evidence that this is true, because even the genetic classification grouped them together. The seconf existing history of origin of Kuturnu people is associated with migration. The people claimed that they migrated from Kano as a result of Jihad wars 1807AD before settling in their present location.

The people are bilingual (Hausa and Kuturnu). Hausa is the lingua franca of the Northern people and it goes alongside with Kuturnu language which is the language of the people. some of the viallges where the language is spoken includes: Akama, Akwando, Atara, Anturu and Asawe, all in Kachia Local Government Area. The Kuturnu people were nicknamed after their occupation “mortar carving” by their neighbours. The word mortar is “Turini” in Hausa language and which has been their name until now. The Kuturnu language people has no written history, but their history is being passed from generation to generation orally.

There are cordial relationship within and outside other districts such as; Kadara district, Ariko district, and Koron tsho district. The headquarters of all this districts is in Awon district, which oversees all other districts. There are various clans in each family which is headed by Ohe prominent person in the family through the agreement of the elders. It is traditionally titled “Ogumo” which mean “Chief”.


The social and cultural life of the people of Kuturnu is similar to Hausa culture. Hausa serves as the lingua franca of the North while Kuturmi is also used side by side with Hausa in the communities. Kuturmi language is not use as the language of instruction, instead Hausa language is being used.


The people of Kuturmi are very rich in culture, they have similar culture with Hausa people. the cultural life of the people are being handed down and preserved from one generation to another. They believe in justice, modesty, equity and fairness. They are very accommodating, especially to the visitors and live in peace with their neighbours.


On arrival at their present settlement from Kano, their forefathers continued with their traditional mode of rulership institution under the leadership of ‘Ogumo’ meaning king. Nowadays, Kuturmi people operates two rulership systems Viz, the political leadership known as the district head and the traditional one known as ‘Ogumo’ which is the clan head in village. Matters regarding the development at the village acrbrrught before them. The political rulership known as district head is recognised by the Local Government Authority of the area while the various heads clan are the representative of clans in the village. The choosing of various heads of clan are doe through the agreement and decision of the members of the clans.


The mode of naming has changed from the olden days system. In the past, it was the rights of the elderly people in the village to give names to any child that was born in the village. Names that were given are based on season or the situation surrounding the birth of the child weather born during a particular festival, or after the death of an old person in the family, such person’s names can be given to such baby believing the dead has come back.

The naming ceremony usually takes place third days after the birth, when the mother had regained little strength. Through Christianity religion has changed this system. It is now being done by religion leaders and the fathers have right to give names to their children without any interference from the elders.


The major occupation of the people in the past was morta carving. Nowadays, the people have gradually shifted from mortar carving to the following works viz; farming, fishing and hunting. They plant Guinea corn, maize, rice, yam, cassava, millet, etc. The farming system which is the major work is being done by both females and males and it is carried-out for consumption and also for commercial purposes.

Civilisation is the order of the days now in the village, educated and educating people are now emerging in the area. The people can also be proud of various people from the village with white collar jobs all over the country.


The people were traditional idol worshipers before, but now, Christianity is the order of the day. In kuturmi villages, about 95 percent are Christians while the remaining 5 percent are Muslims which are non citizen of the land. There are different churches in the community all over the areas of kuturmi language.


There are various beliefs  in the land of kuturmi before the inception of Christianity. They believe in spirits, ancestors gods, Rocks etc. Majority of people worshiping these things has passed away and their children are not worshipping these things.


They believe in the existence of spirits and that these spirits have powers above those of ordinary people. The Spirit are commonly known in the language as ‘Ushari’. They believed that these spirit exist in various forms such as small, big, tall etc and that they (spirits) live in different places such as in the trees, mountains, forest etc.

Ancestral spirit are referred to as the spirit of the departed relatures. They believed, they have interest in the affaires of their living family members. Death in Kuturmi land is refer to as change over to the greatest world beyond. Once a person is dead, he will be addressed and called ‘Okwu’ in the language and the males ancestors are given more prominence than the females ones. Ancestors are worshipped seasonal and each family are expected to have ancestor’s shrine known ad Ujenekwo.


Marriage among the Kuturimi people is within a family tier that is, it is arranged between families. For instance, when a female child is born, the interested family will show their interest in marrying the girl for his male child, for this period, tribute in form of gifts shall be given to the family of the female till when she gets matured for marriage. The children did not have the right to choose who they want to marry by themselves. Marriage is used to strengthen inter families relationship among parents.

This method had however been modified as a result of civilization. Children are now given right to make choose by themselves without parental interferences.


Kuturmi language is classified as Kadara subgroup at Zaria group under Plateau division. The Plateau division is a subgroup under Benue, and Benue is located at Niger-Congo of the branch of Congo-Kordofani an language.

The classification shown below:


KORDOFANIAN                                                   NIGER – CONGO

WEST               MANDE         BENUE        BANTU       ADAMAWE

ATLANTIC                                                                     EASTERN



KORO              JABA         KADARA           CENTRAL        MANDU

KUTURMI            IDAN             KADARA       IKULU            DOKA


Source: ethnologue. com.


The research project work focus on the Morphology. It is with a view at enhancing a morphological analysis on the aspects of Kuturmi morphology. The work attempt to discuss the arrangement or combination of work to form sentences in Kuturmi language. The research paid vivid attension to some of the peculiarities feature of the language.

We have five chapters in all. The first Chapter deals with the general introduction aspect of the work, that is, the socio linguistics profile, genetics classification , scope and organisation for the research and the theoretical framework adopted. The chapter two is based  on the  basic morphological concepts such as, morphology and its types, language typologies among others. However, proper understanding at morphology will not be possible without little knowledge  on phonology of the language is carried out in order to establish the segmental phonemes, the tone inventory and the syllable structure in the language.

And coming to chapter three, which discuses the various free and bound morpheme in relating to their functions in the language. However the chapter four is devoted to the description of observation morphological processes used to form words in the language, while the fifth chapter gives a round- up the whole research work by summarizing recommendation and conclusion to the study.


Studying the internal structure of words in a language is the concern at morphology. The theoretical framework empty in this work is Analysis and synthesis methods of analyses.(Eugene Mida 1949 ed).

The choice of the theory stemmed from the fact, it is the onlyt theory that provides and make provision for unwitten language analysis of language of morphology.


The bilingual method of elicitating data was used in collecting the data which involved English and Kuturmi. The data were elicited with the aid of Ibadan four hundred word lists which comprises of different lexical items.

Aside 400-word lists, phrases, and sentence in English were translated to Kuturmi by the informants. The data collected were subjected to oral interview in English language and response to such questions are replied through the language (Kuturmi) by the bilingual informants (English and Kuturmi). Below are some pieces of information about the informants (nature speakers) used in during the research work.

  1. Name: Jonathern Shekaran Awon

Age:  42 years

Occupation: Teachers (Assistance Headmaster Awon primary school)

Religion: Christianity

Marital status: Married

  1. Name: Sunday Dogo Danmadami

Age : 32 years

Occupation: Teacher

Religion: Christianity

Marital status: Married

  1. Name: Joel Andrew

Age: 38 years

Occupation: Health officer

Marital Status: Married


The following methods are used to collected data from my informants, Viz, oral, written from and recording on the andio cassette their voices. The choice of multiple information is to be able to avoid error(s) and to collect copious data in the language. Joint meeting was done by my informants to be able to give standard version of the language.


These are two complementary approaches to morphology, both are needed by linguist for their morphological analysis.

The analytic approach has to do with breaking words down, and it is usually associated with American structuralist linguistic. This is a good reason for this, linguistic often dealing with languages that they had never encounter before, and these was no written grammars of these languages to guide them. Whatever language we are looking at, we need analytic method that will be independent of the structures we are examining. This is especially true when dealing with unfamiliar language.

The synthesis approach on the other hand, is associated with theory than  with methodology is more. So in a sense, analysis in some way must precede synthesis. Synthesis involved the theory construction. The primary way in which morphologist determine the pieces they are dealing with, is by examination of the data.

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