Causes and effect of examination malpractice in secondary schools: A case study of some selected secondary schools in oredo local government area of edo state

Examination Malpractice
Examination Malpractice
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The purpose of this research work is to find out the causes and effect of examination malpractice in secondary school, using some selected Secondary Schools in Oredo Local Government Area as a case study. A total of 70 students and 40 teachers were used on this study. The instrument used for collection of data from them as the questionnaire and records of students who have been punished either by expulsion or warning their class. The generated data were analyzed using simple percentages.  

The findings of the study are as following, recommendations are made.

1.                  More teachers should be employed so that during examination, the different rooms and hall will have more invigilators.

2.                  The teachers should teach the students; about reading skills to enable them develop good reading habits.

3.                  The management should endeavour to build more large halls.

4.                  Course system should be introduced in secondary school.

5.                  The educational system should be restructured to provide for a smooth transition.

6.                  Less emphasis should as from now be accorded paper qualifications owners.



1.1             Introduction

1.2             Statement of problem

1.3             Research questions

1.4             Purpose of study

1.5             Significance of study

1.6             Scope of study

1.7             Limitations of study

1.8             Definitions of terms


Literature Review


Research Methodology

3.1             Research design

3.2             Population of study

3.3             Sample and sampling techniques

3.4             Research instrument

3.5             Validation of instrument

3.6             Method of data collection

3.7             Method of data analysis


4.1             Data analysis

4.2             Discussion of results


Conclusion, Summary and Recommendation

5.1             Summary of findings

5.2             Conclusion

5.3             Recommendation







The well known for being bad occurrence of examination malpractice in Nigeria is similar to sudden start of unpleasant of a social malaise that appears to resist all form of treatment perhaps comparable to disease. There is evidence in the literatures that examination are some of the controversial issues in education today because of their nature, they attract many critics some of these critics think that less emphasis should be placed or laid on examination while others advocated understanding of subject rather than recourse to examination.

Also examinations are known to play very important role in our education system. According to Ojerinde in Oyechere (1996), examination is a formal test of somebody knowledge, skills or ability in a particular subject especially by means of oral or written questions or practical exercise. According to Liman, (1996) examination is a means of testing student’s knowledge and competence. To Abmed (1996) examination is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by any after an examination by any reason. In all countries of the world examination, which are in reality and frequently in name also competitions designed to eliminate the majority of candidate and allocate the remainder to certain known vacancies.

The most important quality of examination is used to determine pass or fail of students or group students in a school. This is necessary because I the opinion of Ahmed history seem to support the views that setting students against one another in trial and competition has always been repeatable means of inviting them zeal. Students who knows that he might fail an examination which will in turn determines his progress or promotion will strive to pass. Examination is also used academically for assigning grades to student’s secondary schools, we find students being places in division one, two and three or distinction credit and respectively determined through an examination. In the universities also, students are stratified into first, second, (Upper and Lower) or third class degree having gone through an examination. These grades are measure of success and prestige students with a division one pass in school certificate examination will be retained by those around him as academically precious, he is also likely to have a place in institutions of higher learning or in job situation with the society easier than a students with a division three pass. All these candidates have combined to influence a student’s attitude to an examination, which always culminates in an urge for success in any particular examination on whether or not he had prepared for it.

Examinations are also used for other functions. According to Senekan (1996) examination is irregularities, which are premeditated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the intension of gaining undue advantage in the examination. They are designed as a basis for licensing. An example according to Senekan is the drilling test no one so far wishes to part a limit to the number of drives on the road or to set motorist completing against to knock out all bet a small pre-determined quantities of top-grade performance. The authorities have every desire to ensure that those who handled cars are capable of doing so with at least a minimum of efficiency. All licensing examination is a means of screening undesirable, so as to make life safer for many of our reads. Results are governed not by an absolute standard and if performance but by the level of competence of the competitions and in the last sort. (Civil Servant) by the number of posts to be filled in the Edo State school system, the students have to fall series of the ought in educational circles and hence the need of this work.


Examination could be defined as a process of testing knowledge or ability of an individual in question 1 paper, an oral an inquiry into an inspection of some thing account and of one eye questioning by a lawyer in a law court and of a witness.

Onojume (1992) defined examination as all forms of measurement and evaluation tests taken as school arrangement to determine the quality of knowledge or ability possessed by candidates as the attainment or progress towards attainment of desired learning goal. While shorter oxford dictionary defined malpractice as illegal action by which a person seeks benefits while in position of trust, also malpractice is wrong or illegal behaviour while in a profession or job, thus examination malpractice could be defined as a process whereby students cheat in examination hall, in order to gain what they want, they could cheat by writing in piece of paper, writing in palm or any other part of their illegal way of writing examination.


1.                 What are the effect  of examination malpractice

2.                 Why do student engage in examination malpractice.

3.                 What methods do the students use in carrying out the examination malpractice?

1.4            PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools especially, secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Benin City, various methods employed by students as well as the roles by teachers, parents, secondary school authorities and the society at large.


It is of great importance to note that at the completion of this research work, various secondary schools, communities, towns, state and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research work to be beneficial to a great extent, this research work would play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development. The result from this research work will also provide an ample opportunity for parents to be aware of what role they must play in order to prevent their children from being engaged in examination malpractice.

The significant of this study is to reveal the depth at which examination malpractice or misconduct have eaten deep into the fabric of our secondary schools (most especially in Edo State), to discover the forms, causes, effect  and permanent cure or permanent solution to the problem of causes and effect  of examination misconduct or malpractice. Also students been enlighten will then preserve the norms and value of the society and the ethics of examination.

1.6            SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is limited to some teachers and students of secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Benin City. And the research is to examine the causes of examination malpractice between male and female students, the role played by teachers and other non-academic staff as typist, messengers. The serious effect  of examination malpractice in the secondary schools will be highlighted while ways of reducing it or totally eliminating it will also be suggested.

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