THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON LAND UTILIZATION IN LAGOS STATE
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – – –
Title Page – – – – – – – – – –
Certification – – – – – – – – – –
Dedication – – – – – – – – – –
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of Content – – – – – – – – –
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study – – – – – –
Statement of the Problem – – – – – –
Objectives of the Study – – – – – – –
Research Questions – – – – – – –
Research Hypotheses – – – – – – –
Significance of the Study – – – – – – –
Scope/ Limitation of the Study – – – – – –
Definition of Terms – – – – – – –
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – –
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
2.4 Empirical Review – – – – – – – –
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – –
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.3 Area of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques – – – –
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – – –
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – –
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – –
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – –
Chapter Four: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – –
4.3 Testing of Hypotheses – – – – – – –
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –
The word pollution has been used in many contexts with different connotative meaning. However, pollution can be seen as the contaminating the environment. The problem of air pollution has become has become a major concern to both global and local environmental policies formulators purported to address its devastating trend, particularly in growing megacities of the world. The negative effects of the phenomenon are more pronounced in megacities of developing countries than in developed ones. Lagos, as an industrialized, commercialized and an emerging megacity in Nigeria, has been subjected to several predictions of the negative impacts of changing climatic conditions partly caused by ubiquitous air pollution. Efforts at stemming the tide of the increasing challenges of air pollution worldwide has significantly been thwarted by inadequate funding, and awareness programs. this ugly trend has made it pertinent to review the policies regarding climate change and its negative impacts on the lives and properties of teeming inhabitants of Lagos. A review of this policies will entail a wider coverage of research and analysis of the adverse effect of air pollution on land and its implication on the value of land. Air pollution constitute to 20% of land depreciation, this is because a polluted environment does not attract development and population growth. Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth (Goldberg, 1970). Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth (Oyesiku, 2002). Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and Littlel (2008), transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits.
Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004). 1 Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries, trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments. Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines, inland waterways, sea, air, and roads (Said and Shah, 2008). According to Oyesiku (2002), urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt (1997) states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity, density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road networks. Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the metropolis. The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of the road network in Ikeja Nigeria.
However the higher the population density, the higher the transport facility, and the higher the level of air pollution which is a hydra monster to climatic change.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem of air pollution on the utilization of land is a great problem in west Africa especially Nigeria, this is so because some policies which ought to be put in place to prohibit air pollution are not properly implemented. The major problem of air pollution arise from the used of heavy duty plant, machinery and vehicle which releases carbon monoxide into the atmosphere which contribute to the major source of air pollution in Lagos state.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- i) The objective of the study is to ascertain the effect of air pollution on the utilization of land
- ii) To evaluate the effect of air pollution on climate change
iii) To examine the benefit of minimizing air pollution on land utilization
- iv) To explore avenues of eradicating air pollution in Lagos state.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objective of the research, the following research questions were formulated:
What is the effect of air pollution on land utilization?
What is the effect of air pollution on climate change?
What is the benefit of minimizing air pollution?
How do we eradicate air pollution in Lagos state?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
I perceived that at the completion of this study, the findings may be useful to:
The government in their policy formulation and implementation.
The federal ministry of environment in combating the menace of climatic change
The federal road safety corp. to ascertain some vehicle which are no longer road worthy
And the general public at large
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Road is inevitable to human existence, this is because man is not static in his quest for greener pasture, and this mobility most pass through a network call road. The scope of this study is centered on the use of road network in the rural urban migration among Nigerians. Roads may be classified as international, inter-city or intra-city. International and inter-city roads are usually major or arterial roads, while intra-city roads are routes within a city and may be minor or major (arterial). The study focused on arterial roads in the intra-urban network of Ikeja. There are ninety roads in Ikeja out which thirty seven are arterial. From the thirty-seven arterial roads in the study area, only twenty traverse the commercial axes while others serve institutional, industrial, and residential neighborhoods. This study therefore covered all major roads serving the commercial axis and inner areas of Ikeja.
However the study has some limitation which are:
The research could not cover the entire road network of lagos state which are motor able but emphasis was on major rout
The availability of other research material constitute a constrain to the research
Time was also a constrain to the work as time allocated to it was not sufficient to cover other major cities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- a) AIR: may be seen as the mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and minute amount of other gases that surround the earth and forms its atmosphere. Air may also be seen as the invisible gaseous substance surrounding the earth, a mixture mainly of oxygen and nitrogen.
- b) POLLUTION: may be seen as the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. pollutioncan take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, air or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
Pollution is the process of making land, water, air or other parts of the environment dirty and unsafe or unsuitable to use. This can be done through the introduction of a contaminant into a natural environment, but the contaminant doesn’t need to be tangible. Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment.
- C) AIR POLLUTION: This is the act of contaminating the air with gaseous substances and waste.Commercial or industrial waste is a significant portion of solid waste. According to the University of Utah, industries use 4 million pounds (1.8 million kg) of materials in order to provide the average American family with needed products for one year. Much of it is classified as non-hazardous, such as construction material (wood, concrete, bricks, glass, etc.) and medical waste (bandages, surgical gloves, surgical instruments, discarded needles, etc.). Hazardous waste is any liquid, solid or sludge waste that contain properties that are dangerous of potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Industries generate hazardous waste from mining, petroleum refining, pesticide manufacturing and other chemical production. Households generate hazardous waste as well, including paints and solvents, motor oil, fluorescent lights, aerosol cans, and ammunition and some of this waste are gaseous.
- d) ROAD NETWORK: road networks are route that link one country to another, one state to another, one local government to another, one street to another, and one settlement to another. Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey (Mannering, Walter, and Scott, 2004).
TYPES OF ROAD
Inter city road or arterial road
Intra city road or
Inter city route are international and inter-city roads are usually major or arterial roads, while intra city are minor route
POLICIES: These are lay down rules laws and procedures to be followed by environmentalist and road users.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDIES
The research work is organized into five chapters for easy understanding as follows:
Chapter one consist of introduction which consist of the background of the studies, statement of problem, objective of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the studies, and definition of term. Chapter two highlight the theoretical frame work of which the study is based on, review of related literature, chapter three deals on research design and methodology, chapter four deals on data collection and analysis and presentation of findings. Chapter five give summary, conclusion and recommendations made by the studies
the impact of air pollution on land utilization in lagos state