COMMUNICATION AND THE SUSTENANCE OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE IN UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA IN UYO METROPOLIS
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organisational culture: This research focused on communication and the sustenance of organisational culture in the United Bank for Africa No. 1 aka road Uyo. For an empirical study of this type, four objectives which translated into four research questions were formulated. A sample size of 32 comprising of all the units in the bank was drawn for the survey. The research instrument used was questionnaire that comprised two sections; Section A items on demographic data while section B contained items on organisational culture and communication. Out of the total sample size, only 28 representing 88% was successfully retrieved and used for the study and analysis. This study revealed that prohibition of phone calls in the bank is the most dominant culture adopted by U.B.A No. 1 aka road Uyo, that the most outstanding pattern for message flow is downward Communication. The study also discovered that memos, letters, bulletin boards and meetings form the communication methods used to disseminate vital information within the organization; also that communication has contributed to the success of the bank as it plays a major role in the organization, and also the perception of the employees toward the pattern of communication is negative. Based on these findings, the study recommends that the management of United Bank for Africa No 1 aka road Uyo should modify its communication method to include emails and text messages. In order to recognise upward flow of information, management should allow general participation and contribution of ideas from all categories of staff as this would enhance the sustenance of her organisational culture and also give room for changes where necessary.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – Dedication
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – –
Abstract – – – – – – – – – –
Table of content – – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the study – – – – – – –
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – –
1.3 Research Objectives – – – – – – – –
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – –
1.5 Significance of Study – – – – – – – –
1.6 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – –
1.7 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – –
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Review of Concepts
2.1:1 Purposes of Communication in Organisation – – –
2.1:2 Direction of Communication – – – – – –
2.1:3 Dynamics of organisational culture – – – – –
2.1:4 Types of Organisational Culture – – – – –
2.1:5 Organisational Culture as a Symbolic Communication Process – -2.1:6 Modes Of Communication – – – – – –
2.1:7 Barriers Of Communication in Organisation – – –
2.1:8 Cultural Approach to Organisations – – – –
2.1:9 Organisational Background of UBA Plc – – – –
2.2 Review of Opinions – – – – – – – –
2.3 Review of Studies – – – – – – – –
2.4 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – –
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – –
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – – – –
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure – – –
3.4 Description of Research Instrument – – – –
3.5 Validity of Research Instrument – – – – –
3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument – – – – – –
3.7 Method of Data Collection – – – – – –
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS.
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – –
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – –
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – –
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – –
5.4 Suggestions for further studies – – – – –
1.1Background to the Study
The concept of organisational culture is multi-dimensional, (Hofstede, 1994).Culture refers to the complex collection of knowledge, folklore, language, rules, rituals, habits, lifestyle, attitudes, beliefs and custom that link and give a common identity to a particular group of people at a specific point in time.
In friendship and other social relationships for example, partners develop their own history, shared experiences, language patterns, rituals, habits and customs that give that relationship a special character – a character that differentiates it in various ways from other relationships. Groups also develop cultures, composed of the collection of rules, rituals, customs and other characteristics that give an identity to the social unit. Where a group traditionally meets, whether meeting begin on time or not, what topics are discussed, how decisions are made, and how the group socializes are all elements of what overtime, become defining and different elements of its culture (Agbo, 2009).
Organisations also have cultures, often apparent in particular patterns of dress, layout of work places, meeting styles and functions, ways of thinking about and talking about the nature and directions of the organisations, leadership styles and so on. The most rich and complex cultures are those that are associated with a society or a nation and the term “culture” is most commonly used to refer to these characteristics, including language and language usage patterns, ritual rules and customs (Berson, 2008).
Organisational culture is simultaneously the foreground and background of an organisation’s life. Organisation members make sense of their current interactions- the foreground-based on their understanding of the existing culture- the background. Communication creates, enhances, sustains or contradicts the existing culture, which in form create a new background against which the future interactions are interpreted. This cycle is continuous and never complete. As a result, organisational culture is a representation of social order of an organisation. Organisational culture emerges from interaction of organisational members as they use messages and symbols to pursue their personal and professional goals and objectives relative to the organisations goals and objectives. The interaction that is required to make an organisation function creates the organisational reality in which people work. That is, organisational culture is communicatively constructed and communicatively sustained. (Pacanowsky & O’ Donnel- Trujillo, 2000; Smircich, 2001).
Language use and other communication performance drive organisational culture. What is said and done, and how it is said and done in the present, is interpreted by organisational members against what was said and done, and how it was said and done in the past, to create the culture. The process is a continuous communicative performance. As Alvesson argues, culture is not primarily “inside” people’s head, but somewhere ‘between’ the heads of a group of people where symbols and meanings are publicly expressed, for example in work group interactions, in board meetings, also in material objects like symbols, messages, and meaning are inherent parts of the communicative processes that sustains organisational culture. Individual use symbols— words, behaviors, and objects to create messages. Meanings are created, interpreted by organisational members. Through this process, organisational culture is sustained (Trice and Beyer, 2003). To sustain organisational culture in business organisations; especially United Bank for Africa in Uyo metropolis, there is need to communicate the culture of the organisation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Organisational culture comprising of the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organisation has been defined as the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and group in organisation and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organisation.
From personal observation at United Bank for Africa in Uyo metropolis, the following cultures were observed. Dropping bags and luggage’s at the security post with a tag to identify the owners, customers being served with sweet while on the cue, a welcome speech by the security man at the entrance to the bank, prohibition of phone call in the bank, rating box provided where customers rate the Bank on the basis of how good, bad and fair they (bank) attend to customers, celebration of African Global Day on 25 June every year, and management meeting every Thursday.
Without communication, these organisational cultures cannot be created and sustained. In excellent organisations where people constantly and unconsciously comply with the values and believes of a common culture, is as a result of effective and constant communication of the organisational culture. Such organisation achieves its goals with little pain. However, a key characteristic of culture is good communication which plays an important role in sustaining organisational culture. Effective communication is what keeps internal processes running smoothly and helps to create positive relations with customers both inside and outside the organisation.
The question therefore is: what role has communication played in sustaining organisational culture in United Bank for Africa in Uyo.
1.3 Research Objectives
The objectives of this study are to;
1. Identify United Bank for Africa’s cooperate organisational culture;
2. Ascertain the role of communication in sustaining organisational culture in United Bank for Africa in Uyo;
3. Find out the existing communication pattern in the UBA in Uyo
4. Find out the employees perception of the communication pattern in terms of its ability to sustain organisational culture.
1.4 Research Question
This work sort to find answers to the following questions;
1. What is the most predominant organisational culture adopted by UBA in Uyo?
2. Has communication through the sustenance of organisational culture contributed positively to organisational effectiveness in UBA in Uyo?
3. What is the existing communication pattern in UBA in Uyo?
4. How do employees perceive the pattern in terms of its ability to sustain organisational culture?
1.5 Significance of Study
This study will assess the role of communication in sustaining organisational culture.
The study will be of great benefits to corporate organisations because it will explore how organisational culture helps the organisation in achieving it goals.
It will also be a useful research material to students and researchers in the field of communication.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This research is being delimitated to Akwa Ibom State. The researcher focuses on communication and sustenance of organisational culture in United Bank for Africa, No.1 Aka Road in Uyo Metropolis. Thus, the respondents of this work will be the staff of UBA Plc, Uyo Akwa Ibom State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In the course of undertaking the study, the research was faced with delay during the distribution of questionnaire as a result of delayed approval from the operation manager to distribute the questionnaire to the staff of the bank, the unreturned and unuseful copies of questionnaire, lack of funds formed the challenges of this work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
To ensure effective comprehension of this work, certain terms as they relate to the topics are defined operationally as follows:
Organisational culture: For the purpose of this work, organisational culture refers to workplace practices such as Dropping bags and luggage’s at the security post with a tag to identify the owners, customers being served with sweet while on the cue, a welcome speech by the security man at the entrance to the bank, prohibition of phone calls, rating box provided where customers rate the Bank on the basis of how good, bad and fair they (bank) attend to customers, celebration of African Global Day on 25 June every year, and management meeting every Thursday at UBA Plc in Uyo metropolis, which members of the organisation must observe in order to sustain set goals and objectives.
Sustenance: according to this study, means keeping alive, making organisational culture evergreen to suit workplace practices of UBA Plc in Uyo metropolis.
Communication: Communication as operationalized refers to all the ways and methods in which persons within UBA Plc, employ in the sharing of meaning and understanding, in relations to the sustenance of the organisational culture of the organisation. It could be through letters, memos, meetings etc.
UBA PLC: this is one of Africa’s leading financial institutions offering universal Banking to customers in Uyo Akwa Ibom State.