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Coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch (kings and queen) with regal power by placing a crown upon their head. This research is aimed at examining the coronation of the Onojie of Ekpoma HRH Bar. Abumere II in printmaking. The research observed that the coronation of the Onojie involved series of spiritual, religious and traditional ceremonies and rituals carried out within 7 days. A brief history of Ekpoma and her sub units was also discussed. Among other things the research recommends that more research and documentation should be encouraged in this area, as well as the role of the palace in conjunction with educational institution to create opportunities for younger generation to be corgnitized about their norms. Finally the research concludes that cultural internalization is a key toward cultural sustainability.


Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             iii

Dedication                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                    v

Abstract                                                                   vii

Table of contents                                                     viii


1.1      Introduction                                                     1

1.2      Statement of research problem                         5

1.3      Aims and objective of study                             6

1.4      Limitation and scope of study                          7

1.5      Significant of study                                          8

1.6      Definition of terms                                           8


2.1      Background to the study                                 10

2.2      Literature review                                              13

2.3      Coronation of an Onojie                                   16

2.4      The coronation process of HRH Br. Anthony Ehizojie Abumere II                                                                    18


3.1      Research methodology                                     22

3.2      Development of thumbnail                              23

–       Transforming stage                                  23

–       Elimination stage                                     24

–       Impress stage                                           24

–       Finishing stage                                        24


4.1      Materials used in the practical aspect of the research                                                                        26

4.2      The visual of some tools/materials used          28

4.3      Detailed explanatory note on the materials and tools used                                                                30

4.4      Plate analysis                                                   36


5.1      Summary of finding                                         45

5.2      Recommendation                                             47

5.3      Conclusion                                                      48

References                                                       50




In a very organized society, there are always institutionalized norms values and culture which are transferred from generation to generation. The practice of making a king and queen cut across all monarchical system where power and authority is personalized in the king and queen alike. The process of making a king required traditional legitimacy often referred to as a coronation.

Coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia, this rite may also include the taking of a special vow acts of homage by the new ruler’s subject and/or the performance of other ritual deed of special significance to a given society (wikipedia free encyclopedia).

Though, in modern society, different socio-political and religious factors has resulted the change of the word coronation, many prefere simpler enthronement, investiture or benediction ceremonies.

There is a strong connection between coronation, religion and tradition, because coronation often involves anointing with holy oil or chrism as it is often called. Also, in the past practice of royalty, coronation and deity were inexorably intertwined. Also, in some ancient culture, rulers were considered to be divin or partially divin. For example, the Egyptian Pharaoh was believed to be son of RA (Son of God). In Japan the Emperor was believed to be descendant of Amaterasun (Sun of goddess). Also, in mediaval Europe, monarchies were claimed to have a divin right to rule (Time inc. 1977).

History of coronation dates back to antiquity, like the seti in 1290 Egypt, in the middle age, 610 various kingdoms in Europe was coronated with a king e.g. the coronation of queen Victoria in West minister Abbey in June 28 1838, in the modern age, many kingdom in Europe modernized the coronation process into a more secular nature, but of all Europe monarchies only the United Kingdom still retains its medieval coronation rite, in other countries such as Cambodia, Thailand, Tonga, Lesotho and Junfzlerland the Papacy retain the option  retains the option of coronation (world fact book 2008).

In Africa, coronation pattern differs from country to country especially in most monarchial settings. In Ashanti Kingdom, the Asantehene is the ruler of Ashanti of Ghana by raising the Golden stool what is the most sacred ritual object in Ashanti culture. In the kingdom of Egypt (1922-53). The ruling king Faruk I by instituting a special vow in an Islamic ritual followed by his recent of the sword of Mohammed Ali Pasha (Sine Saloum 1986). In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Salassie used a coronation ritual, heavily influenced Ethiopia’s Coptic Christian tradition by administration of a Christian oath (CPS 48: vi) in the cathedra.

In the Yoruba located in the southwest Nigeria, coronation and ascending to the throne is done through primogeniture, they must be the descendant of Oduduwa. In Igbo land located in South East geo political zone, coronation and ascendance to the throne differs from place to place, in some places the eldest is crowned (Gerontocracy) in some other places, the kingship linage is observed.

In Benin kingdom (South/South) Nigeria, coronation of the king revolves around the linage of the Oba’s family, when the Oba joins his ancestors, the first son will be automatically coronated as the Oba.

Ekpoma as one of the oldest social formation located in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State. It has existed for more than four centuries it has a centralized system of traditional administration tailored along the Benin and Yoruba monarchical system.

Ekpoma is large and has many territories, it is surrounded with Iruekpen on the (west), Ughielle and Ewakwa in the (east), Ene and Emaudo (North) we also have other sub-villages like Ihumudumu which is divided into two by Uda the great (1485-155) which comprises Ujemiue and Emuhi, it was further divided into twelve by the present Onojie (M. Ehichioua 2013). All these sub-villages are controlled by one Onojie of Ekpoma. The coronation and the king making process of the Onojie of Ekpoma constitute the focus of the research.

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