THE MASS MEDIA OWNERSHIP POLICIES AND ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF NIGERIAN JOU…
INTRODUCTION OF STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Media as a watchdog and the mirror of the nation perform crucial roles in the society and as well it is influence in its editorial policy. In trying to understand what mass medians, lazar field and Kendal insist that mass is truly applicable to the medium of radio for it more than other media in reaching all groups of the population uniform’’ but before we proceed with this work, we will include not only the mechanical devices that transmit and sometimes, messages (TV cameras, radio microphones, printing press) but also the institution that use these machines to transmit messages. When we talk about the mass media of television, radio, newspaper, magazine, sound recoding and film, we will be referring to the people, the policies the organization and the technology that go into productions mass communication. Dominick (1987)
For the purpose of courvinence in this work we shall limit the fem. Mass media to those opencast that posses the capacity to reach league audiences simultaneously, this, then leaves us with the television medium, The radio medium, the brokers media. Television media is relatively owner then the radio and point, but it posses peculiar. Characters that place on it a distracter, especially in development orientation the two characteristic often described as TV advantages are the visual and the audience qualification. To gratify assess the performance of television as a means to an end; such factor is the social contest within what communication occurs. It is adequate to wear that in Nigeria, for example, the number of television station sine independence has grown to almost thirty-six stations (both stake, federal and privately owned ones); but these cannot be equaled to exposure and the use of which television programmers have been put to, by Nigerian media audience. Inspire of the above figures that appear encoring, by the third world Nigeria situation is shill a far cry from the UMES Co minima’s standards of mass media establishment and use. UNES Co stipulates that every Country should meet up with what it considers as the minimal standards of mass media demand. Radio is another medium in third world country because it really reaches the masses. In Nigeria for example the use of radio a source of information is truly evidences even among neural dwellers who make up majority of the country’s population (okunna, 1992, sob wale and sogbamu 1984, more 1981). The radio, no doubt is enjoying gather popularity especially among the rural population because of its reach and also because of its bluing earlier to the media scene than television whether reach alone can actually amount to proper use of the radio medium will again call back the issue of the relationship between message dissemination and message reception since radio is widely diffused and readily accessible even in peripheral areas, it can span large audience at low cost. And because it reaches moral rural people in the third world than any other medium. Its potential to bring about increases in knowledge and provide motivation for shift in practices is considerable. And for it to meet media goals, it should be used in such a way that it is close, indeed, very close to the people. A situation where some people are cut off radio reach, as it the case in Nigeria is to san the least unacceptable. In using the radio, there is need for physical decentralization and democratization of the radio media moving the radio media structure to where they can make more direct contort with a greater percentage of the media audience and the ownership should be re-structured to allow for the participatory communication approach to be discussed later in full. Print medium is another part of mass media; it involves printed materials like newspaper, magazine journals, bulletins gazettes books etc. Although the whole range of printed material are important aspects of the print media. The newspaper and the magazines have come to enjoy greater popularity when the print media are considered as means for mass mobilization and development nothing brings out more clearly the importance of newspaper than Jefferson’s preference ‘were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspaper, or newspaper without government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter (Jefferson 1987) the earliest forerunner of the modern newspaper originated in china as long as 500 AD. Since then the newspaper has under one a lot of changes to appear in the shape it does to day. The newspaper has also proliferated all over the world.
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study would attempt to explain the mass media, ownership policies and ethical problems of the Nigerian journalist.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Based on the research made, sponsorship of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff have formed the influential factors consequent upon the editorial policy of the media house since the owner(s) of the media house usually does or do the afore-stated factors. The media ownership have therefore in some ways influenced the editorial policy and this has posed problems to journalism as a trade. In this case, the editorial writing has to function with the policy framework and editorial principles. Nothing runs the editor down as having the option of either doing it the way the policy dictates or he resigns or otherwise sacked.
Influence of media ownership on editorial policy have made many newspapers to collapse in operations and have also made them to lose their readership grip. In the case of a Announcer Newspapers, as a privately owned Newspaper, if it does not have so many policies that usually affect its readership except that its front and back page stories are centered on Imo state. Often times, it faces the stiff competition of the national and other local newspapers. Again, people from other state would always see the purchase of the newspaper as a waste since it does not usually spread its tentacles. According to the staff of “Announcer Newspaper”, the publisher (owner) brings to production room when it is already time for production. This delays production of the paper.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This work is aimed at highly hectoring the ways by which media ownership influences editorial policy of newspaper and ethical problems of Nigeria journalist.
To give same information on the (based on research influence) editorial policy has gone in destroying journalistic principles. Vis-à-vis the consequence of such case.
It would also act as a audit Turing factor and would go as much as proffering solution forwards checking these excises.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
To use this woke to attract some legislation amends and stop totally about friend, which is not for the good of Nigerian society.
1.6 RESEARCH OUESTIONS
In this study, an attempt would be sufficiently made to answer the following questions. Does the media ownership factor influence editorial policy of a private (Newspaper) medium? Can the job of the journalism be used to check the influence of media ownership on editorial policy?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HI: Media ownership factor influences editorial policy of a private medium.
HO: Media ownership factor cannot influence editorial policy of a private medium. (Like Announcer newspaper).
H2: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper house can be guaranteed.
HO: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper house can not, be guaranteed. H3: Ethics of journalism can be used to check the influence of the media ownership on the editorial policy.
1.8 DEFINATION OF TERMS
In this area, certain key word will be explained into conceptual and operation definition.
1.MEDIA OWNERSHIP PATTERN: The act of seething up or establishing a medium by a person or group of passions and or the government.
2.EDITORIAL CONTENT: A guide for the publication of stories in newspaper or magazines. It is the path a newspaper elects to follow as it answers the two basic question what shall we publish? How shall we publish?