INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND THE BANE ENCOUNTERED BY THE TECHNICAL TEAC…
Educators and Researchers have observed that the commonly used method of teaching which is discussion method does not make any effect on some field of studies. For example in the field of introductory technology. The purpose of this study was to determine the bane encountered by Technical Teachers in the teaching of introductory Technology with and without instructional materials as well as the appropriate instructional materials needed at the junior secondary schools in District II of school division in Lagos State. The research design is survey design. From the literature review six (6) research questions were designed. The population was all the Introductory Technology teachers in all the Junior Secondary Schools in District II of School division in Lagos State. The samples of seventy (70) Technical Teachers were used. The research instrument was the questionnaire. The data analysis collected on this study is analysed based on the research questions for the study. Some of the schools where the research was conducted lacked an Introductory Technology workshop not to talk of the instructional materials found in it. Some of the recommendations were; They should teach each topic of the subject with instructional materials so as to motivate the students and make them understand the subject so as to perform well academically and outside school.
1.0Background Of The Study
It has been observed over the years by educators and students that Teachers have been depending on excessive use of words to express ideas to leaning during the teacher – student interaction, so teachers are accused of talking too much. Today, advances in Technology have made it possible to change the bane often encountered by the Technical Teachers during the teaching and learning of Introductory Technology. By this move, they are no longer required to depend solely on discussion method of Teaching and learning process. These advances in Technology have also made it possible to provide materials and devices that could be used to make the transfer of knowledge and skills more meaningful and concrete. Educators and the public also observed that the performance of students are not encouraging in Introductory Technology due to the absence of some things.
Students also do not attend Introductory Technology classes because the Technical Teachers have nothing to make the subject more concrete. To this end researchers have come to realize that the advances in Technology have provided some materials and devices for the use of Technical Teachers in the teaching of Introductory Technology. These materials and devices are called Instructional Materials. These Instructional Materials Comprises of Charts, Posters, Audio-Visual aids, Realia, Audio aids, visual aids and so on. It has been observed critically by researchers that these Instructional Materials are not at the reach of most teachers for effective use in the classroom. Ogunmilade (1999) of the media press in Education, University of Ife, argued in favour of Instructional Materials that they are instrument through which the teaching and learning process could be encouraged and carried on. Instructional Materials are indispensable for effective teaching at the preparatory levels because, they are not only assisting the teacher but also they motivate the learners to learn, Okafor (1998). However, the successful implementation of this system of education called 6 – 3 – 3 – 4 in which Introductory Technology is a basic subject, depends on the Technical Teachers and the appropriate and available Instructional Materials. Since Instructional Materials have been known to be materials and devices used to aid Teaching and learning process, some Technical Teachers still lack the basic knowledge of the important of Instructional Materials. This could be due to lack of skill acquisition or not being trained. Instructional Materials such as Posters, safety codes, operational manuals which are to guide the students in their workshop practice, if lacking would either create a problem to the Technical Teachers or students in the effective Teaching and learning of Introductory Technology. A report on the performance analysis of students offering Introductory Technology from one of the Junior Secondary Schools in Somolu Local Education District, of past years was observed to be very poor. It was observed that ten out of hundreds of the student offering the subject had a pass mark. Olayiwole (1998) said that students perform well and learn skills faster when the topic is being Demonstrated and Practicalized. He went further to say that in teaching and learning, Demonstration and practicalization should go in the ratio of 10:25. This emphasizes that Instructional Materials should be presented to the students more readily to aid them practicalize what they have been taught. Nigeria has been emphasizing self employment and grassroot Technical Industries and has therefore advocated the establishment of Technical Colleges at various levels in which the Junior Secondary Schools are the foundation level. The teaching of Introductory Technology therefore entails abundant Instructional materials and equipment to cater for Technological subject which are practical by nature. For our students to develop favorable attitude towards Introductory Technology they should be exposed to many Instructional Materials to aid in their acquisition of knowledge and skills. It is obvious that lack of Instructional Materials hampers the effective Teaching and learning of Introductory Technology. This could be one of the factors contributing to students poor performance and negative attitude to Introductory Technology.
This study therefore emphasizes that Instructional Materials are essential in the teaching and learning of Introductory Technology by the Technical Teachers, so as to achieve the required results by the Technical Teachers, Students, School, Society and the nation at large. It is therefore necessary to investigate the bane encountered by the Technical Teachers Teaching Introductory Technology, the effect of this bane and students performance in Introductory Technology.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
Technical Teachers lack the necessary Instructional Materials for effective teaching and learning of Introductory Technology. They also lack the effective skills acquisitions needed at the Junior Secondary School Level. Teaching in abstraction brings ineffective Teaching and Learning. In a situation where the Technical Teacher who is to be practically oriented do a lot of discussion method of teaching without the use of Instructional Materials along side, the students will lack the basic skills needed in performing well in Introductory Technology at the Junior Secondary School Level. These scare the students away from the subject, also they are not being motivated. Acquisition of basic skills at the Junior Secondary level is then impossible.
What are the problems to be encountered by the Technical Teachers in the Teaching of Introductory Technology with and without Instructional Materials?
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the bane Technical Teachers encounter when they teach with Instructional Materials and when they do not teach with it, the study is also meant to determine the appropriate Instructional Materials for the teaching of Introductory Technology at the Junior Secondary Schools.;
1. Determining the appropriate Instructional Material for teaching Introductory Technology by the Technical Teachers in the Junior Secondary Schools.
2. Investigating the effect of inavailable Instructional Materials in Teaching Introductory Technology at the Junior Secondary level.
3. Identifying the Motivational effect of Instructional Materials in the teaching and learning of Introductory Technology.
4. Determining the effect of Instructional Materials on students’ performance in Introductory Technology.
5. Identifying the problems that Technical Teachers encounter with the use of Instructional Materials.
6. Identifying the problems Technical Teachers encounter when they teach without Instructional Materials.
1.3 Significance Of The Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study would throw more light on some of the banes encountered by the Technical Teachers in the teaching of Introductory Technology with and without Instructional Materials at the Junior Secondary School level. This study may also be of importance to Junior Secondary School Technical Teachers on proper and effective method of Teaching Introductory Technology. This study is also hoped to change the negative attitudes of the students towards the subject, Introductory Technology at the Junior Secondary School level.
Finally, based on the findings, Government may also be able to embark on worthy decisions like provision of Instructional Materials necessary for the teaching of the subject by the Technical Teachers so as to militate the bane encountered by them, and organizing Seminars and workshops to improve and modernize their teaching methods.
The research questions of this study are:-
1. What are the appropriate Instructional Materials needed for teaching Introductory Technology by the Technical Teachers at the Junior Secondary Schools?
2. What effect does an inavailable Instructional material have on the effective teaching of Introductory Technology at the Junior Secondary School?
3. What motivational effect do Instructional Materials have on the teaching and learning of Introductory Technology?
4. What effect has Instructional Materials on students’ performance in Introductory Technology?
5. What are the problems Technical Teachers encounter with the use of Instructional Materials?
6. What are the problems Technical Teachers encounter when they teach without Instructional Materials.
1.5 The Scope Of The Study
This research work is centered mainly on Technical Teachers Teaching Introductory Technology in the Junior Secondary Schools with Particular reference to District II of School division in Lagos State. The issues involved were only studies from one District Lagos State. Therefore generalization can only be limited to District II of School division in Lagos State.
1.6 Definition Of Terms
1. Bane: Difficulties or problems one encounters over something.
2. Instructional Materials: They are those devices that and the teaching and learning process.
3. Introductory Technology: This is a pre-vocational course which is offered in Junior Secondary schools level. It comprises of; wood work, metal work, automechanics, Electrical Electronics, Building Constructioin and Technical drawing.
4. Pre-vocational subject: These are subjects offered at the Junior Secondary School which are meant to give the students basic knowledge and skills on Technology Literacy.