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The end-of-course grades assigned by lecturers are intended to convey the level of achievement of each student in the class. These grades are used to make a multitude of decisions. Unless a sufficiently accurate and efficient method is used for the grading, the grades are apt to convey misinformation and lead the decision-maker astray. In itself, the processing of results is found to be rather tedious, especially when carried out manually, and when the number of students is large. 

It is time-consuming and error prone. The process, however,

becomes a lot easier and much more accurate when carried out with a computer

running a suitable software application. To find a sufficiently fast and accurate

method of carrying out this processing is a problem that is both challenging

and interesting. In this work, a computer software application was developed

to facilitate the automated processing of the results. The software was developed in

Java programming language in the form of a database, employing

PostgreSQL Relational Database Management System. The developed software

performed well and produced expected results on completion. With it, it was

possible to compute Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average for

each student based on examination scores entered being the core idea behind the




1.1 Background of Study

The errors associated with the existing manual method of processing of students’

results in most universities in Nigeria, including the Federal University of

Technology, Owerri, make it not only desirable but imperative that computerized

approach be used to the full in measuring students’ academic progress. The manual

methods being employed suffer a number of set-back. They make the process to be

time-consuming and prone to errors even as they lead to late publication of

examination results. Worst still, sometimes wrong grades are being entered and

students’ grade point averages are computed wrongly. Consequently, the

cumulative errors being generated are ultimately linked to awarding of erroneous

class of degree. Some students could end up with undeserved good classes of

degree, while others could be unfairly victimized, bringing about frustration. In

this case, the image of the department(s) concerned and the whole University alike

could become tarnished. The problem, therefore, that arises is to find a method of

processing examination results that would be sufficiently accurate and reasonably


Result processing is a routine activity. Every semester in the higher institution calls

for assessment of the performances of the students. This assessment usually comes

in the form of examinations, tests, practicals, labs, and the like. Without an

assessment of the students, there will not be the need to work hard.

Assessment takes the form of a reward system. Students are interested in a

competitive environment. Tracing this to the primary and secondary school

systems where the students are graded in positions; each student works very hard

to make the best results. The higher institution system is no difference. At the end

of each academic semester, the results of the semester academic activities are

computed. The issue here is in the conversion of the levels of involvement and

expertise of the students into relative figures which ranks the students.

There are over forty (40) departments in the Federal University of Technology,

Owerri (FUTO), each having an average of over four hundred students. A simple

calculation here surfaces that there are over sixteen thousand students in FUTO;

excluding the post graduate and pre degree students. Each of the students in every

level has results to be computed. The task of result processing and other academic

activities mandates the assignment of course advisers to take care of such


Result, by way of definition is the consequence of an action; the conclusion of a

problem, or experiment after a period of time. At the end of each academic

semester, the results of the exams, tests, practicals and labs are calculated and the

grades are correspondingly computed. This is done by the various course

coordinators of the courses. The next phase of the result processing process is done

by the level course adviser. Each level of every department has its own dedicated

course adviser. The course adviser acts on the list of results of all the students in

his/her level and those of other students who sat for courses in other levels; either

as borrowed courses or as carry over courses. The task ahead of the course adviser

is to convert the grades of the students submitted to him into grade equivalents.

The Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) is characterized by six


In Universities like FUTO, the need for automated method of keeping data has

been there. There have been several attempts to develop systems for automating

result processing, but most of the work of this project will be on the processing of

the results of the students at the undergraduate levels; and also span across other

course advisers’ functions. With Information Management Technology department

as the organization’s case study, this work is focused on providing alternative

solutions to the general problems associated with result processing, adding and

dropping of courses, registration of extra course units, timely computation of students’ grades, course registrations, and above all, security issues which hinders

unauthorized access to results by students and lecturers.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problems posed by manual methods of result processing are enormous. The

situation is the same in Federal University of Technology, Owerri and

correspondingly, Information Management Technology department. The issues

here can only be addressed by employing upper hands. The effort expended in the

process of registration of students and computation of their examination results is

tedious. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are carried out every

academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever demanding cycle.

The computation of examination results and registration of students is obviously an

object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in this case. Hence,

the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an object-oriented

software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently

capture all the important objects associated with the registration and examination

result processing within the University and the interactions among the objects.

This genuine and noble desire necessitated the design and implementation of a

result processing application for a course program, with Information Management

Technology as the organization in question.

So many softwares have been developed and even sold worldwide to solve this

problem but most of such softwares have been discovered to be inefficient.

Another problem which these softwares have posed is non-user specific problems

as they are rather general use softwares, than specific use softwares. Students as

well has researched and developed their own software but they could not give or

develop error free software that will assist in result generation, automated course

registration to keep or build a database of results in the university that will

facilitate students’ transcripts.

This problem has been procrastinating the results of graduating or graduated

students hence, delay in leaving for the National Youth Service when they ought to

have gone. This problem has dominated the system especially in the department of

case study, Information Management Technology Department.

To arrest this problem, there is a need to develop software that is accurate, error free, and that can run on the web (using real time) in order to give students access to their results as at when needed. This will also help reduce the queue usually seen at the course advisers’ office during result’s check and in turn tackle the so much stress on both exams and record and the management in Universities.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this project is to design and develop system that can:

1. Provide a reliable solution to result processing that is corruption free.

2. Ensure that normal credit load in line with the school is maintained.

3. Provide a software that will generate result that is accurate, timely and error free.

4. Maintain a reliable database for storage of students’ records and update as the need arises.

5. Restrict unauthorized access to the students’ record.

6. Provide an advice engine based on the current status of the student advices the student result which on the next course of action to take in his/her academic pursuit.

7. Produce relevant report of students’ general performance at the end of every academic semester, presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs, etc.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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