CHALLENGES FACED BY INTEGRATED SCIENCE TEACHERS IN TEACHING OF INTEGRA…

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The growth of science in Nigeria and the world at large is on a very high speed; one can define science as an intellectual activity carried on by humans that is designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover the ways in which this information can be organized into meaningful patterns.

A primary aim of science is to collect facts (data), an ultimate purpose of science is too discern the order that exists between and amongst the various facts.

Ezendu (2002) defined Science is a body of knowledge, which is acquired through observation and systematic experimentation.

Ogbonna B. B. (2000) defined science as complex human activities, which culminate in the production of a body of universal statement, which serve explain the observable behaviour of universe or part of it and which is in them, have predictive characteristics. The Columbia encyclopaedia (1963) defined science as an accumulated and systematized learning in general usage restricted to natural phenomenon.

According to Dr. Sheldon  Gottlieb in a lecture series at the university of south Alabama defined science as a  consists simply of the formulation and testing of hypotheses based on observational evidence, experiments are important where applicable but their function is merely to simplify observation by imposing controlled conditions.

Khabela (1975) in Bajah (1978) defined Integrated Science as an approach to the teaching of science, of which concepts and principles are presented so as to express to fundamental unity of scientific thought and avoid premature or undue stress on the distinction between the various scientific fields. Also stressing the unified nature of science, Cohen (1977) had this to say.  Integrated Science course eliminates the repetition of subject matter from the various sciences and does not recognize the traditional subject boundaries when presenting topics of themes.

Integrated Science came in Nigeria in 1968, West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) asked (STAN) Science Teachers Association of Nigeria to review and improve syllabus.

The written workshop was done at University of Ibadan in 1970. Other workshops were held in 1971 and 1972. Then textbooks 1&2 with workbooks and teachers guide were produces and introduced into the junior secondary schools Comparative Education Study Adaptive Centre (CESAC) and Educational development overseas sponsored the workshop and the working section through the British council in Nigeria.

As the integration of these Science courses, Integrated Science which should be taught as a unified science, not just as Chemistry or Physics or Biology. Because teachers that are not integrated science inclined teach integrated science either as Physics or Chemistry or Biology.

United Nation Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) give material support while Nigeria limited publishers published restricted science teaching to only those in higher classes, however the period from 1968 to 1970 witnessed a series of joint effort by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Comparative Education Studies and Adaptive Centre (CESAC) to redesign science to meet the need of loss science oriented. Students are to be taught in junior secondary classes, hence the introduction of “Integrated Science”.

According to Okoli (1978) stated that integrated science program evolved as a rescue operation to replace absolute and un-interesting general science courses.

Chukwuemeka (1981) states that Nigeria Integrated Science is inter-disciplinary, integration as well because Nigeria Integrated Science is an integrated of nature of science. Integrated Science materials development in Nigeria was a deliberate attempt to achieving a specific national design.

Since Integrated Science was introduced into the syllabus in 1970 with proper study, so many problems like incompetent of the teachers, lack of teaching materials, improper teaching approach and the rest of them have evolved leading to non-learning interest by the students.

The integration of these three main sciences courses and some others to bring about Integrated Science, a lot of problems arise during the process. The idea of Physics, Biology and Chemistry has been adapted respectively but to no avail, we therefore have to go into this research to find a possible solution to the many problems.

Therefore, saying that the teaching and learning of Integrated Science in junior secondary schools is very essential no doubt as it regarded as a yard stick in the development of any nation. This paper will focus on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in the teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary school in Ankpa local government area of Kogi state.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The educational system of Nigeria has had a new look since the inception of integrated science in the junior secondary schools; even at that most secondary schools especially the junior categories in most of the rural areas tends to have a lot of setback in their overall academic performance in most external exams. The major problem faced by integrated science teachers and the growth of integrated science in most of the junior secondary schools in ankpa local government area of Kogi state are stated as follows:

1.  Lack of instructional materials

2.  Poor laboratory

3.  Communication problem due to high level of illiteracy in this area

4.  Parent and students’ perception about integrated science

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The primary aim of the paper is to investigate on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching and learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools. The specific objectives of this paper are stated below as follows:

1.  To examine the effect of poor laboratory and adequate training of teachers on the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in ankpa local government area

2.  To examine the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of instructional materials for schools in ankpa local government area of kogi state

3.  To determine the factors affecting the learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools

4.  To investigate the factors affecting teachers’ performance in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ankpa local government area of kogi state.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

1.  What is the effect of poor laboratory and adequate training of teachers on the study of integrated science in junior secondary school in ankpa local government area?

2.  What are the roles of the state and the federal government of Nigeria in the provision of instructional materials for schools in ankpa local government area of kogi state?

3.  What are the factors affecting the learning of integrated science in junior secondary schools?

4.  What are the factors affecting teachers’ performance in teaching of integrated science in junior secondary schools in Ankpa local government area of kogi state?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: That there was language problems, that is, the science terminologies can be easily translated into local languages

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching integrated science in junior secondary school will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in Ankpa L.G.A in the sense that the study will identify the challenges facing integrated science teachers in teaching integrated science in secondary school. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar study on the above. The study will also contribute to the body of the existing literature on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching integrated sience in junior secondary schools.

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the challenges faced by integrated science teachers in teaching integrated science in junior secobdary school will be limited to secondary schools in Ankpa L.G.A

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraintInsufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work


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