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There are so many indicators in the literature that examination is one of the most controversial matters in our contemporary society.

Hence due to its nature, it attracts very many critics this situation has given rise to where a part of the critics believes that examination as the last resort.

Categorically, examination is clearly knows to render very useful help in the field of education meanwhile, Stephen (1969) views that there are numerous examples in all countries of the world while are in reality and frequently in name, also, competitions designed to eliminate the majority of candidates and allocate the reminder to certain know vacancies for example the civil service in secondary schools in colleges or universities. In the real fact examination is usually employed to mark either pass or fail is constantly applied to a collection of students. It collaborate the view of Stephen where he declares that history as to back up the view setting children against one another in trials and competition has always been a respectable means of inciting them to deal because examination is used to measure the academic performance of every students. With this mind, they have always strived to pass. In the same vein, it also encourages a kind of competition within a collection of students who will aim at the attainable highest mark in classes.

Apart from the foregoing examination as still used for giving grades to the individual students. By casting our minds into past, the West Africa councils issued resulted on the basis of some grading where students were placed in  stratification one, two, three, respectively secondly the relevant practices of the Nigeria teaching institute is that students are given certificates in the ground of distinction, credit, and good classification and either of those where marked through examinations

By the standard of the National Certificate Education, students are by custom grouped into first, second, further subdivided into upper and lower or third class degree having successful undergone a rigorous set of examination.

Consequently, all those situations have been put together to exert influence on the child’s attitude which have always had a way of bringing about negative desire or success in any given examination with or without adequate and necessary preparations.

However, it is good to note that examination goes beyond the four walls of the school system. Hence, Nwama (1979) observed that “in business sector, the more theoretical examinations one passes, the better the chances of advancement even of productivity does not increase. According to him, this is the social and even candidates operate.

Examination still more, could be used as a medium for issuing licensed. A paragonised paragon by the view of Stephen is driving test and here he declared “no one so far wishes to put a limit to computing against each other in a series of proficiency test designed to unlock out all but a small earlier determined quantity of top grade performance. The authority has every desire to ensure that those who handle cars are capable of doing so with at least a minimum of efficiency. The essence of an examination before written before the issuance of driving license is just to answer that life is made safer for the majority of the populace using our highways.

Furthermore, he believes that examination is a weapon normally used for social engineering and he puts it thus, it is used in breathing through social class barriers and quickening social mobility. Therefore, the imperative of examination because we cannot cope one form of examination of the other, there is constantly emphasized by people on the need to pass since it tells who should have a given job at the expenses of on the spot mouth (oral) test. In whichever form an examination takes, we must note that it is always competitive. Meanwhile, the outcome of any given test is not governed by a complete standard of performance but by the degree of excellence of the contestants. Also, in the civil service sectors, results are guided by the number of vacancies to be occupied. It is worthwhile to note that in the school system, every child has to write a series of tests in the secondary school. There are in the form of class terminal and session examination and to go long way to determine whether he will reach the final year class. Therefore, the next examination to be taken will be either the national examination, which is the final year class. These are respectively organized by the NECO and WAEC.   

It is essential to place on record that success at either of this examination helps to determine the success made in the six years spent in the secondary school. So higher marks attained in any of them becomes one of the yardstick to institutions of higher learning while having to write other sets of consecutive competitive examination with the JAMB to mention but a few.


It has become an idea from the background of this work that examination plays a very useful role in our education and society at large. It is a very rare phenomenon to see where honest examinations are conducted. However, as early as 70s examination malpractices have been reported in our education cycle. With action in mind, those who involved themselves in examination malpractice usually introduce systematic and sophisticated method in overshadowing even clever and watchful invigilators. Malpractice has been a nationwide scourge and of which Delta State is also inclusive. For this reason is made to investigate the extent it has gone in the area of the study have and why it happens mainly in secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area of Delta State.


The purpose of the study is to examine examination malpractices among secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area of Delta State.

Right from the early 1970s, examination malpractices have been on the increase due to the negative trend, various bodies have been seeking panacea to it.

Meanwhile, as they tend to proffer possible solutions, they learn more and more styles of committing the crime; hence, this work is concerned specially to investigate critically some useful aspects of examination malpractices.

a.      Reasons why students cheat during examination exercise.

b.      The method used by the in cheating.

c.      The extent to which the society, teachers, parents, and students involve themselves in examination malpractice.

d.      The effect of examination malpractices on students, school and the society.


It is believed that lots of benefits will be gotten from this study. In the first place, it will mark the degree to which students, teachers and parents involved in examination malpractices.


With a close reflection to the thought provoking questions above the following that, there is a relationship between parents and teachers level of expectation and students cheating in any given examination.

a.      Why is that poor taught students are most certainly to breach the integrity of the conduct of examination?

b.      Why does the relationship between the drive for success and breaching examination rules and regulations occur?

c.      Why is it that the students who have not equipped themselves adequately are most certain to cheat in an examination?

d.      There is a connection between students, cheating in an examination and accomplish using it as an avenue to making more money.


H0: Examination malpractice does not have an effect on secondary school students in Nigeria

H1: Examination malpractice has an effect on secondary school students in Nigeria


This study is restricted to the causes and effects of examination malpractice in Ika local government area of Delta state.

Limitation of the study

It is necessary to mention some of the limitations of this research work. The chief limitation is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information, some information required from respondents in questionnaires were not given by respondents but these missing values were not  statistical significant enough to be noticed.

Notwithstanding, in the highlighted limitation above, it is          hoped that this research will be useful to Nigerians, organizations that may be interested in our research.


Malpractices: It is the action of any person usually not in conformity with laid down rules and regulations whether internal or external.

Local Government Area: A group of towns and villages delimited as a result of the Local Government Edict No 13 of 1976.

Educators: As used here implies school principals, administrators and teachers sampled.

WAEC: West African Examinations Council

NECO: National Examination Council

NABTEB: National Business and Technical Examination Board

GCE: General Certificate of Examination

Internal Examination: This is examination usually given toi students by their class teachers.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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