• Format
  • Pages
  • Chapters



According to Ndikom (2006), The Word freight rate connotes the reward usually payable to the carrier for the carriage and arrival of the goods in a mercantile condition ready to be delivered to the merchant. Maritime z shipping services are usually priced conjunction with land mode of transport and are dependent on the forces of demand and supply. Moreover, the demand and supply of International sea-
transport services are basically derived the demand and supply of commodities (Goods) carried by sea and 15 therefore affected by the elasticity (changes in prices and demand cum supply) for those commodities. Basically normal times, an important factor affecting the exact elasticity of demand for shipping service, is the cost of transport in relation to the market prices of the goods carried.
Although, it may be small, the cost of sea transport is often a significant element of components in the final market prices of many important commodities. Ekwerina (2003) posits that in developing countries, particularly those of the sub-saharan African region, transport cost(Freight rate) consist about Fifteen (15%) to twenty (20%) percent of the costs of imported and exported commodities. Thus, a commodity that may have attracted a low price to purchase in the international market tends to cost 150/0, to 200/0 higher than the actual cost of purchase after it must have entered the sub-saharan African

market. The impact of this is that inflation tends to be the order of the day for imported commodities in Nigeria causing a continuous high rise in the prices of imported goods. Experts thus assert that there exist a direct correlation between market prices of imported goods and the shipping (transport cost) freight rate such that a positive change (upward increase) in liner freight rate brings about an upward increase
in the costs of imported goods while a negative change (downward decrease) in liner freight rate brings about a downward (decrease) change in prices of imported products in Nigeria. Over the years however, the frequency of positive changes (increases) in liner freight rate with attendant Increase in market prices of imported products has been so high that it becomes customary for prices of imported
products to continue to go high without room for decline in market prices.

Ndikom (2006) posit that the continued increase in liner freight rate in sub-saharan African countries can be traced to n umber of factors among which are: high port tariffs and dues charged to ship owners by Government Agencies and terminal operators in ports, high ship turn-round time (STRT) in sub- African ports necessitating the payment of demurrage by ships; delay in cargo clearing processes b::V customs and other government agencies in ports, lack of national shipping lines to carry the countries share of water-borne trade and
insecurity in the waters of the region causing panic to ship- owners that trade in the sub-saharan sea-routes. The effect of this is that, even in the face of port reforms that sort to address majority of the problems of the shipping industry, freight rate in Nigeria has continued to be negatively affected as a result of high cost of doing business in Nigeria ports which has invariably impacted negatively the market prices
of imported goods in Nigeria and turning the economy into an
inflation ridden economy,

In the View of Okon (2006), freight rate, insurance, import duty and handling costs constitutes an important element in the determination of the value of many export and import commodities and also influence the demand for such commodities in the import market. This in essence means that shipping freight rate is an element that increases the cost of products, and thus, the prices of export and import goods in the market as well as exportation and importation is the
main vector of our commercial exchange, since the largest
percentage of Nigerian international trade is carried by sea Hampton,1989). The research will however seek to evaluate
the correlation between liner freight rate and market prices of
imported products in Nigeria.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

Find What You Want By Category:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You May Also Like


ABSTRACT The issue of tax can be understood to mean a compulsory and mandatory contribution by way of payment of money made by the citizens of a country to their government for the purpose of financing public activities. Its major objectives are to raise money to finance government or public expenditures on utilities so as to achieve efficient and economic development and to distribute the nation‟s wealth in a manner as equitably as possible. All governments in the world rely on revenue from taxation to finance public utilities and other essential services .Taxation therefore is a civic responsibility on the part of the citizens. Until this idea is inculcated on the tax payers, the question of voluntary compliance to tax payment becomes a mirage. Consequently, this can lead to tax evasion and tax avoidance which eventually warrants the imposition of civil and criminal sanctions against the tax defaulters. The problem of this study hinges upon the idea that tax payers in developing countries particularly in Nigeria detest tax payment. The origin of this negative attitude is from the colonial era when the government were considered alien. The citizens were compelled to pay tax and the revenue so raised was seen as it is used for unknown reasons. The majority of the citizens who were illiterates do not consider it important to pay tax. However, this is not to say that taxes were alien to Nigeria. Before the colonial rule taxes were imposed in some parts of Nigeria. The refusal to pay tax by the Nigerian citizens continued even after independence both in the public and private sectors of the economy. It is in this vain that this study examines ineffectiveness or otherwise of the various tax legislative provisions against tax offences. The penalties were made to guard against any prospective tax evaders or avoiders. However, in spite of the fact that several taxing provisions provided sanctions for any breach of tax, it seems the penalties are not formidably effective to control tax evasion and tax avoidance. Hence this study is to review the state of penal provisions relating to tax offences and penalties by examining the doctrinal method of research into the tax statutes, case laws, text books, legal seminars and articles as well as internet sources to achieve is goal. Thus, it was observed that, there is the need to examine the criminal and civil sanctions under the Nigerian income tax legislation with a view to ascertain their effectiveness. Hence, it is recommended that a comprehensible tax law reforms, good taxpayers awareness of their duty to pay their taxes coupled with effective penal sanctions against tax defaulters that can guarantee tax compliance strategy for revenue development in Nigeria. xvi CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1       Background to the study Income tax is wholly the creature of statute. That is to say,…
Read More