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This research was carried out to assess mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning of Government in Lagos State schools. The research design for this study was descriptive survey and it employed the used of two questionnaires: Teachers Questionnaire on Availability and Level of Usage of Mass Media (TQALMM) and Students’ Questionnaire on Availability and Level of Usage of Mass Media (SQALMM)  to collect data from a population sample of five teachers and seventy-five students, making a total of eighty respondents. Ten  research questions were raised for the purpose of this study while four hypotheses were stated and tested in the study using t-test. The following findings emerged from the study: there was a significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in teaching and learning Government as a subject. However, there was a significant difference among teachers in their perception of the challenges faced in using mass media to teach Government as a subject. There was also a significant difference in the perception of students about challenges faced in learning Government. It was also discovered that there was an over reliance on the print media especially the use of the textbook in teaching and learning Government to the detriment of other types of mass media especially the electronic media in which the radio was unavailable for teaching and learning Government. Some Government textbooks were outdated and did not reflect current trends like the digital media. The following recommendations were made to improve the use of mass media in teaching and learning Government: school authorities should take advantage of the radio and work closely with radio stations to develop programmes for teaching and learning government in schools. School authorities should also ensure that their teachers and students are computer literate and can assess the internet and social networks for fruitful academic endeavours. A monitoring check up system can also be set up e.g blocking non academic sites on the internet, selecting social networks that can suit academic pursuits etc. There should also be an ICT department in every school to help teachers and students alike to make the best use of ICT equipment. The government should subsidize internet subscriptions to schools and even provide hardware equipment to schools that cannot afford it. More corporate organizations should be encouraged to establish ICT labs in schools as a social responsibility.



1.1 Background of study

According to Wikipedia, education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits. According to John Dewey (1916), it is a social process –a process of living and not a preparation for future living. Education is from three Latin words:

1.                  educatum meaning the act of teaching or training

2.                  educare meaning to bring up or to raise.

3.                  educere meaning to lead forth or to come out

Education is the nourishing of the good qualities in man and the drawing out of the best in every individual .Education is often confused with schooling famously called banking by Paulo Freire (1973) i.e to make deposits of knowledge on learners like objects acted on rather than individuals to be related to. Individuals should be given time to discover truth and possibility. Education means to develop a person morally (affective), physically (psychomotor) and mentally (cognitive). It is the foundation of the society and the best investment for the people. The main purpose of education is to prepare and qualify people for work in the society and to socialize them, preparing the young for adulthood. Education enables a person to understand his/her cultural identity. Education provides a forum to evaluate and find solutions to problems in a society. Education teaches learners to maintain social order. Education and mass media have overtime enjoyed a sweet-sour relationship. On the one hand, TV and newspapers have provided extensive useful education content, and acted as watchdog of public activities; however,  its role has been compromised these days by the battl e for survival in the media industry. Education experts look up to the media to do more than act as a watchdog, and help to build an efficient education system by bridging the communication gap between the government and educational policy makers. The media plays a significant role in the design , manipulation and sustenance of international diplomacy and body politics. For the adolescent, the media has become a socializing agent. Adolescence is a time of self identification. Therefore, family influences decreases while peer influence increases. Media is the means and channel through which information and news reach individuals that constitute the local national, regional, Continental and or international, audience. In recent times, media has become a political tool of the dominant paradigm in the national, continental and international politics. In Africa, and nearly most other third world countries, national governments use the potential of media information and language to manipulate the masses and influence public opinion. The media is used to maintain and retain the status quo. But with media power, all those who have vested interests in its control make the ordinary citizen a mere puppet. Subjective reporting is the selection of content and media coverage for some diplomatic and political motive. Through subjective reporting, global media initiates, instigates, fuel and aggravates crises and conflicts that later degenerates into terrorism (trans-national and international). According to social responsibility media theory, duties of the media include:

1.      To serve the political system by making information, discussion, consideration of public affairs generally accessible.

2.      To inform the public to enable it to take self determined actions.

3.      To protect the rights of the individual by acting as a watchdog over government.

However, there are harmful effects of mass media. Firstly, teachers only use media to get attention to the subject matter, to reward good behavior, and to keep kids quiet and under control. Media content can sensationalise violent behavior, exposure to subtle or explicit sexual content, promotion of poor health habits and exposure to advertising targeting children. Moreover, majority of programmes for children and youth in developing countries are imported. Unfortunately, most of the content contain character messages that are not relevant to local culture. Youth programming has reduced in face of funding cuts and growing competition from private channels. As rich in content as the television is in instructional, education programming and news reportage, students and teachers are not abreast of socio-political issues. This is because TV news reportage and programming are beyond students’ comprehension on how to extract and analyse information. TV programming and news reportage are politically inclined and biased. Major TV networks in Nigeria chase for airtime. Money dictates what is shown on Nigerian TV screens. This ultimately means that people who have the funds e.g the government, rich politicians, private investors, multicorporations etc determine what is broadcast on TV. Corporations and private investors are profit oriented and will push any media content that will reach their target audience to make enough profit while the government and politicians are after promoting good image through propaganda especially during the electoral process. Therefore teachers and students are left with media content devoid of socio-political significance or tainted with cheap propaganda. Media content have generally been commercialized.


The challenges of availability of media are enormous: propaganda and brown envelope journalism, foreign nature of media conten, the bombardment of advertisement, reluctance to encourage youth programmes, regional and sectional interests, power outage, accessibility of the internet and inadequate ICT equipment. The cost of airing T.V programmes is very high so producers sacrifice educational programmes for entertainment which is readily sponsored by corporate bodies because it is profitable. The radio appeals to different audiences and ethnic, religious differences (segmentation). This makes its usage very selective as students might find it difficult to tune to a station for information. Internet penetration in Nigeria is very high now and its subscription too. Students might not be able to afford subscription fee and might not have access to ICT equipment e.g laptops, personal computers, phones, hand-held devices etc to download E-books. The digital divide between teachers and students is quite alarming. Most teachers do not possess the knowledge of handling ICT equipment and find it difficult to keep abreast with current trends. This affects their level of usage and they retort back to old media for information instead of complementing both sources of information.

The shelf life of newspapers is very low and this causes both students and teachers to assess magazines because of its attractiveness and shelf life. The challenges of using the media include poor reading skills.Due to technological development, reading habits are changing. Students now lack the skill of reading. Instead they spend more hours on electronic media. The acquisition of reading skills have a beneficial effect on all school subjects including social science, math and so on. Unfortunately, reading is not taught or included in school curriculum. Only a few schools have good libraries while majority have limited dog-eared books locked up in few cupboards. There is unprecedented rise in the price of books while DVDS are becoming more affordable. The vast information of the world’s information is not digitized. Rather, it is in print form mostly in books. Aina (2011).Children with poor reading habits have a higher chance of anti social behaviour. Today’s populace between the age bracket 18-34 are increasingly using the web as their medium of choice for news consumption. Local TV remains the most accessed source of the news and the internet is quickly becoming the most favourite of young consumers. About 44% of these age bracket use the internet for news and about 19% use the printed newspapers. Moral degeneration and decadence, gross obsession and abuse of social networking, inadequate knowledge  by teachers  are other challenges of using the media.Unfortunately, the endemic power outages in the country pose  a limiting factor to the extent to which the radio can be used to effectively broadcast educational programmes. The problem associated with the television is whether a separate channel will be assigned educational programmes or to establish separate TV houses for the purposes of education. There is also the problem of incessant power outages. The influence of electronic media in educating students is not socially progressive. It has resulted to frustration on the part of many teachers who do not have inadequate knowledge of electronic media technologies like computer internet, education software etc. Also it is time consuming and skill demanding for teachers . Users of electronic media, for example, students can be vunerable to unintended misuses of electronic media e.g social media. Social networks grab the total attention and concentration of the students and diverts them towards non educational, unethical, and inappropriate actions such as useless chatting, time killing by random searching and not doing their jobs. Inadequate infrastructure, including computer hardware, software, bandwidth, are major challenges in using the digital media.  Agbamuche, (2015).


The purpose of this study is to:

1.      find out the  availability of mass media to Government teachers  in secondary schools.

2.      determine the  availability of mass media to Government  students in secondary schools.

3.      assess the challenges in the availability of  mass media to Government teachers in secondary schools.

4.      assess the challenges in the availability of  mass media to Government students in secondary schools.

5.      evaluate  the  level of  usage of mass media by Government teachers  in secondary schools.

6.      assess the  level of  usage of mass media by Government students  in secondary schools.

7.      analyse the challenges  of using mass media by Government teachers  in secondary schools.

8.      assess the challenges  of using mass media by Government students in secondary schools.

9.      appraise the availability of mass media in teaching and learning Government in secondary schools.

10.  appraise the level of usage of mass media  in teaching and learning Government in secondary schools.


1.      To  what extent is mass media available to Government teachers  in secondary schools?

2.      To  what extent is mass media available to Government teachers  in secondary schools?

3.      What are the factors that affect the availability of mass media to Government teachers in secondary schools?

4.      What are the factors that affect the availability of mass media to Government students in secondary schools?

5.      How often do Government teachers use the mass media?

6.      How often do Government students use the mass media?

7.      What are the challenges encountered by Government teachers in using the mass media?

8.      What are the challenges encountered by Government students in using the mass media?

9.      What is the most preferred mass medium used by Government teachers in secondary schools?

10.  What is the most preferred mass medium used by government students in secondary schools


1.      There is no significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in teaching Government as a subject.

2.      There is no significant relationship between the availability and level of usage of mass media in learning Government as a subject.

3.      There is no significant difference in the perception of teachers about challenges using the media

4.      There is no significant difference in the perception of students  about challenges using the media


This study will help Government teachers and students to avail  themselves to the best  practices and the most effective usage of mass media  in order to reduce the negative  influences  of the media that hinders fruitful academic learning. This study will also help to  create awareness on the best form of mass media effective for teaching and learning the subject.


This study is an assessment of mass media availability and level of usage in the teaching and learning of Government in Lagos state schools. However, the scope of this study will be limited to Government teachers and students in Pedro, Shomolu Local Government, Lagos State.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research

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